Wednesday, August 19, 2015

Additional material for AIIMS AND JIPMER

Additional Information
Edible part of some fruits
Name of the fruit
Botanical name
Kind of the fruit
Edible part of the fruit
Simple Fruits
1.     Rice
2.     Wheat
3.     Maize
4.     Litchi
5.     Cashew nut
6.     Water chestnut
7.     Bean
8.     Pea
9.     Tamarind
10.   Lady’s finger
11.   Groundnut
12.   Mango
13.   Walnut
14.   Almond
15.   Plum
16.   Indian plum
17.   Coconut
18.   Papaya
19.   Grape
20.   Brinjal
21.   Tomato
22.   Blackberry
23.   Capegooseberry or Ground cherry
24.   Guava
25.   Banana
26.   Betel nut
27.   Date
28.   Pomegranate
29.   Lemon
30.   Sweet orange
31.   Cucumber
32.   Kakri
33.   Smooth Gourd
34.   Muskmelon
35.   Bottle gourd
36.   Watermelon
37.   Elephant apple
38.   Wood apple
39.   Pear
40.   Apple
Oryza sativa
Triticum spp.
Zea mays
Litchi chinensis
Anacardium occidentale
Trapa bispinosa
Dolichos lablab
Pisum sativum
Tamarindus indica
Abelmoschus esculentus
Arachis hypogea
Mangifera indica
Juglans regia
Prunus amygdalus
Prunus domestica
Zizyphus jujube
Cocos nucifera
Carica nucifera
Vitis vinifera
Solanum melongena
Lycopersicum esculentum
Eugenia jambolana
Physalis peruviana

Psidium guajava
Musa sapientum
Areca catechu
Phoenix dactylifera
Punica granatum
Citrus medica
Citrus sinensis
Cucumis sativus
Cucumis melo var. utilissima
Luffa aegyptiaca
Cucumis melo
Lagenaria vulgaris
Citrullus vulgaris
Feronia elephantum
Aegle marmelos
Pyrus communis
Pyrus malus
Caryopsis
Caryopsis
Caryopsis
Nut
Nut
Nut
Legume
Legume
Lomentum
Capsule
Lomentum
Drupe
Drupe
Drupe
Drupe
Drupe
Drupe
Berry
Berry
Berry
Berry
Berry
Berry
Berry

Berry
Berry
Berry
Balausta
Hesperidium
Hesperidium
Pepo
Pepo
Pepo
Pepo
Pepo
Pepo
Amphisarca
Amphisarca
Pome
Pome
Endosperm and embryo
Endosperm and embryo
Endosperm and embryo
Fleshy aril
Cotyledons and fleshy pedicel
Cotyledons and aril
Seeds on ripening
Seeds on ripening
Mesocarp
Entire fruit (=Pericarp and seeds)
Seed
Fleshy Mesocarp
Cotyledons
Seed
Epicarp and mesocarp
Epicarp and mesocarp
Endosperm, testa, cotyledon and embryo
Mesocarp
Pericarp and placenta
Pericarp and placenta
Pericarp and placenta
Pericarp
Pericarp and placenta

Pericarp and placenta
Mesocarp and endocarp
Seed
Mesocarp
Juicy testa
Endocarpic juicy hair
Endocarpic juicy hair
Mesocarp and endocarp
Entire fruit
Mesocarp and endocarp
Mesocarp and endocarp
Mesocarp and endocarp
Mesocarp and endocarp
Mesocarp and endocarp
Mesocarp and endocarp
Fleshy thalamus
Fleshy thalamus
Aggregate fruits
41.   Custard apple
42.   Strawberry
43.   Lotus
44.   Rasberry
Anona squamosa
Fragaria spp.
Nelumbium speciosum
Rubus idaeus
Etaerio of berries
Entaerio of achenes
Entaerio of achenes
Entaerio of drupes
Mesocarp
Thalamus
Thalamus and seeds
Thalamus
Composite fruits
45.   Jack fruit
46.   Mulberry
47.   Fig
48.   Pine apple
Artocarpus integrifolia
Morus indica
Ficus carica
Ananas sativus
Sorosis
Sorosis
Syconus
Sorosis
Bracts, perianth and seeds
Perianth
Peduncle and seeds
Peduncle, bracts, perianth and seeds



Difference between animal and plant cells

Difference between animal and plant cells
S.No.
Animals Cells
Plant Cells
1
A cell wall is absent
Plant cell is covered by a rigid cell wall
2
Due to absence of cell wall the shape of animal cell is not firm.
The shape is firm
3
A tissue fluid generally bathes the cells
Tissues fluid does not occur in plants
4
Protoplasm fills the whole cell
It is generally peripheral
5
Vacuoles are generally absent if present then they are small
Plant cell has a large central vacuole
6
Nucleus is usually rounded and lies in the centre
It is usually oval and lies in the peripheral cytoplasm
7
Adjacent cells are held together by various types of junctions
Cells are held together by middle lamella.
8
If kept in hypotonic solution animal cell may burst
If kept in hypotonic solution cell swells but does not burst
9
Plastids are absent
Plastids are present
10
Cristae of mitochondria are plate like
These are tubular
11
Golgi complex is commonly a single complex
Golgi complex is made of a number of distinct units called dictyosomes
12
Centrosome is present
Centrosome is absent except in some lower forms
13
Glyoxysomes are absent
These are present in plant cells
14
Lysosome are present
Lysosome are rare
15
Intermediate fibres occur in cytoplasm
Intermediate fibres are absent in cytoplasm
16
Spindle apparatus is amphiastral
Spindle apparatus is anastral
17
Cell division by cell furrow method
Cell division occurs by cell plate method.



Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
§  An organized nucleus is absent.
§  A well organized nucleus is found.  It is differentiated into nuclear envelope, chromatin network, nucleolus and nucleoplasm.
§  DNA is naked i.e., without an association with histones.
§  Nuclear DNA is associated with histone proteins.
§  DNA is usually circular.
§  Nuclear DNA is linear but extra nuclear DNA is usually circular.
§  A prokaryotic cell has one envelope organization.
§  An eukaryotic cell has two envelope organization.
§  ER, mitochondria, GC, centrioles, lysosomes, sap vacuole and other cell organelles are absent.
§  These are present.
§  Ribosomes are of 70S type.
§  Ribosomes are of 80S, but 70S type of ribosomes occur in plastids & mitochondria
§  Cytoplasm does not show streaming movements.
§  Cytoplasm usually shows streaming movement.
§  Spindle apparatus is not formed during division.
§  A spindle apparatus is produced during nuclear division.