Saturday, July 18, 2015

NERVOUS SYSTEM ASSIGNMENT

NERVOUS SYSTEM
1.     The typical resting membrane potential of nerve fibre is
         1) -40 mv                     2) - 70 mv                     3) -90 mv                               4) +45 mv
2.     Arrange the following events in sequence starting from resting state in nerve transmission
         A) falling phase         B) polarized state      C) under shoot                     D) rising phase
         1) ABCD       2) CBAD        3) BDAC                 4) BADC
3.     Match the following
         Column - I                                                         Column – II
         A)Restring potential                                                                                       I) -90 mv
         B) spike potential                                             II) -55 mv
         C) Hyper polarised                                          III) + 45 mv
         D) Threshold potential                                   IV) – 70 mv
                                                                                      V) – 65 mv
         1) A – IV, B – III, C – I, D – II                          2) A – V, B – III, C – I, D – II
         3) A – III, B – I, C – II, D – V                           4) A – II, B – III, C – I, D – IV
4.    Assertion (A): Sodium – potassium pumps contribute to the negativity of the resting membrane potential                      
         Reason (R) : In residing stage Sodium-potassium pumps remove more positive charges from axoplasm than they bring into it
         1) A is true, R is false.                                      2)  A is false, R is true.
         3)  A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A                
         4)  A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
5.     The relative refractory periods coincides with period of
         1) re polarization  and hyper polarization    2) depolarization and re polarization
         3) resting and hyper polarized states            4) hyper polarized state
6.     Read the statements and identify correct ones
         I) for  only potassium activation voltage gated channel is present
         II) ligand gated channels located in the post synaptic membrane i.e dendrites and cell bodies
         III) ligand gated channels can only open and not close in response to chemical stimuli
         IV)  leakage channels are more than  leakage channels
         1) I, III and IV              2) II, III and IV             3) I, II and IV                         4) I and III only
7.     The inhibitory neurotransmitters are
         1) Epinephrine, nor epinephrine                    2) Acetylcholine dopamine
         3)Dopamine, serotonin                                    4) Glycine, GABA
8.     Choose correct combination
         Condition                    Activation                    Inactivation                         Potassium gates
                                               gates of sodium          gates of sodium                  
         I)Depolarization       opens                             opens                                      closes
         II) Resting state        closes                            opens                                      closes
         III) Repolarization   closes                            opens                                      opens
         1)I and II                      2) II and III                    3) I, II and III                         4) I and III
9.     The ion channels which respond to chemical signals rather than to changes in membrane potential are known as
         1) leakage channels   2) activation gates       3) inactivation gates            4) ligand gated channels
10.   Choose wrong statement related to electrical synapses
         1) impulse transmission across is faster       
         2) they are also known as gap junctions
         3) they are never bidirectional                      
         4) membranes of pre synaptic and post synaptic neurons are very close
11.   The ion channels in nerve membrane which are said to be lazy gates are
         1) activation gates of                                2) inactivation gates of
         3)  channels                                                4)  gates
12.   Chemical synapse is
         1) functional gap                                               2) structural bridge             
         3) functional bridge and structural gap         4) structural bridge and functional gap
13.   Arrange the events in sequence for chemical synapse transmission
         A) release of neurotransmitter by exo cytosis
         B) depolarization of axon terminal of presynaptic neuron
         C) binding of neuron transmitter to receptors on post synaptic membrane
         D) opening calcium channels
         1) C  B  D  A 2) B  D  A  C 
         3) B  D  C  A 4) D  B  A  C
14.   Summation of successive inputs from single presynaptic membrane is called
         1) temporal summation                                    2) spatial summation          
         3) action potential                                             4) tetany
15.   The time during which a second action potential can be initiated by a larger than normal stimulus
         1) absolute refractory period                          2) relative refractory period
         3) total refractory period                                 4) summation
16.   Significant efflux of potassium ions occurs through voltage gated potassium channels during
         1) depolarization, re polarized states            2) resting and depolarized states
         3) re polarized and hyperpolarized states     4) only during hyperpolarized states
17.   During which period a neuron cannot generate another action potential even to a strong stimulus
         1) depolarized and re polarized conditions  2) resting and hyperpolarized conditions
         3) hyper polarized condition                          4) re polarized and hyper polarized conditions
18.   Incorrect statement about synaptic transmission
         1) summation of potentials occur at axon hillock                                      
         2) EPSPs cause hyper polarization of post synaptic membrane
         3) post synaptic potentials are graded
         4) Acetyl choline is most common neurotransmitter
19.   Continuous conduction occurs in
         1) myelinated fibres                                         2) non myelinated fibres
         3) chemical synapses                                                                                       4) both myelinated and non myelinated fibres
20.   In a myelinated axon voltage gated  and  channels are concentrated at
         1) Internode region    2) nodes of Ranvier    3) both regions          4) only at axon terminals
21.   Epinephrine, nor epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin are neurotransmitters which act as
         1) only inhibitory                                              2) Excitatory
         3) either excitatory or inhibitory                    4) produced in electrical synapses
22.     Purely sensory cranial  nerves of man
          1)  I, II and VIII                                                        2)  III, IV, VI, XI and XII
          3)  V, VII and IX are mixed in nature                  4)  III, IV, V, VI
23.     Which cranial nerves innervate the muscles of the eye ball.
          1)  3, 4 & 5                      2)  4, 5 & 6                     3)  8, 9 & 10                   4)  3, 4 & 6
24.     Identify the cranial nerves, whose motor fibres innervate salivary glands
          1)  Trigeminal, Abuducens and Vagus                2)  Occulomotor, Abducens and Glossopharyngeal
          3)  Trigeminal, Facial and Glossopharyngeal    4)  Vagus, Facial and Hypoglossal
25.     Study the following and choose the correct combination.
          Cranial nerve                Origin                             Innervation
          A)  Occulomotor           Floor of midbrain        Retina of eye
          B)  Cochlaer                  Organ of corti              Sensory nucleus (Pons & Medulla)
          C)  Hypoglossal            Cerebellum                    Muscles of tongue
          D)  Spinal accessory    Medulla                          Stomach and intestine
          1)  A                                 2)  B                                 3)  C                                 4)  D
26.     Match the following and choose the correct combination about cranial nerves.
          List-I                                                                        List-II
          A)  I                                                                          1)  Vestibulo-cochlear
          B)  II                                                                         2)  Hypoglossal
          C)  VIII                                                                    3)  Olfactory
          D)  XII                                                                      4)  Optic
                                                                                             5)  Facial
                A               B               C                D                          A               B               C               D
          1)  3                4               1                2                    2)  4                3                1                2
          3)  3                4               5                2                    4)  3                4                2                1
27.     Arrange the following mixed cranial nerves of man as per their roman numbers.
          a)  Vagus                        b)  Glossopharyngeal  c)  Trigeminal               d)  Facial
          1)  c, b, d, a                     2)  b, d, c, a                     3)  a, c, b, d                     4)  c, d, b, a
28.     In the axon of a motor nerve, the nerve impulse travels
          1)  Towards the cell body                                      2)  Away from the cell body
          3)  Away from the synapse                                   4)  In both the directions
29.     Injury to vagus nerve in humans is not likely to affect
          1)  Cardiac movements                                          2)  Gastro intestinal movements
          3)  Tongue movements                                          4)  Pancreatic secretion
30.     The correct sequence of cranial meninges from inner to outerside
          1)  DuramaterArachnoid materPiamater   2)  DuramaterPiamaterArachnoid mater
          3)  PiamaterDuramaterArachnoid mater   4)  PiamaterArachnoid materDuramater
31.     ‘Pons’ connects
          1)  Occipital lobe and cerebellum                        2)  Two lobes of cerebellum
          3)  Two cerebral hemispheres                              4)  Epithalamus and hypothalamus
32.     Read the following.
          a)  Longitudinal fissure b)  Lumbar enlargement c)  Bracheal enlargement
          d)  Median fissure           e)  Cervical enlargement                                  f)  Conus medullaris         g)  Median sulcus
          Which of the above are associated with the spinal cord of man
          1)  b, d, e, f, g                  2)  e, f, g only                 3)  a, b, e, f, g                  4)  b, c, d, e, g
33.     Spinal neurocoel is the continuation of
          1)  I ventricle                  2)  II ventricle                3)  III ventricle               4)  IV ventricle
34.    
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          In the given diagram, identify the one which represent funiculi.
          1)  A                                 2)  B                                 3)  C                                 4)  D
35.     Assertion (A) : In the central nervous system of man, some areas of brain and spinal cord appears white.
          Reason   (R) : Cytons of neurons are present in the white colored areas of central nervous system.                           
          1)  A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
          2)  A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
          3)  A is true, R is false.                                           4)  A is false, R is true.
36.     Identify the structures from which cerebrospinal fluid is riltered into ventricles of brain.
          1)  Anterior horns and posterior horns               2)  Epithalamus and Hypothalamus
          3)  Primary sensory areas and primary motor areas
          4)  Anterior choroids plexus and posterior plexus
37.     Development of the following structures in the brain of humans not only lead to the peak of evolution of their nervous system but also their dominance as well.  Identify the structures.
          1)  Neopallium and corpus callosum                   2)  Cerebellum and Pons
          3)  Corpora Quadrigemina                                    4)  Amygdale and Hippocampus
38.     Study the following.
                            I                                II                                         III
          A)  Thalamen cephalon          Hypothalamus                 Maintains body temperature
          B)  Mesencephalon                 Coliculi                              Visual and auditory functions
          C)  Rhombencephalon            Medulla                             Voluntary activities
          D)  Prosencephalon                Associated areas             Sensory or motor in function
          In the above the correct combinations is
          1)  All                              2)  A and B only            3)  B, C and D only        4)  C and D only
39.     Assertion (A) : Intoxication of alcohol leads to loss of body posture and body balance.
          Reason   (R) : Pneumotoxic centre is located in the Pons Varoli of hind brain.
          1)  A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
          2)  A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
          3)  A is true, R is false.                                           4)  A is false, R is true.
40.     Read the following statements.
          I)    It secretes neurosecretory hormones
          II)   It is involved in the regulation of sexual behaviour along with limbic system
          III) It is the thermostat of the body
          IV) It forms a pineal stalk which ends in a pineal body
          Which of the above are correct about the hypothalamus of brain.
          1)  All are correct          2)  All except II              3)  All except I and III   4)  All except IV
41.     One of the following is not a part of limbic lobe or limbic system.
          1)  Amygdale                                                           2)  Inner parts of cerebrum
          3)  Inner part of cerebellum                                  4)  Hippocampus
42.     Choose the incorrect from the following.
          1)  1st and 2nd ventricles are joined by foramen of Monroe
          2)  Cerebral aqueduct joins 3rd and 4th ventricles
          3)  Mid brain, Pons and medulla are together referred as brain stem
          4)  Non nervous extension of conus medullaris to the coccyx is called filum terminale
43.     Both sensory and motor branches of one of the following cranial nerve innervate the organs outside the cephalic region.  Identify it
          1)  Vestibulo-Cochlear nerve                               2)  Glossopharyngeal
          3)  Trigeminal                                                          4)  Vagus
44.   Motor cranial nerve associated with craniosacral outflow of autonomic nervous system is
            1. III    2. VII  3.IX                             4. X                                        
45.   Which of the following is not a character of reflex action?
         1. Instantaneous           2. Involuntary             3.Conscious                 4. Automatic
46.   The following controls and integrates the activities of autonomous nervous system
         1. The little brain                                               2. The thermostat of the body
         3. Brain stem                                                      4. The tree of life
47.    ASSERTION (A): The ‘cranial outflow’ of the parasympathetic neural system stimulates salivary secretion.
        REASON (R): The overall effect of sympathetic neural system is excitatory while the overall effect of parasympathetic neural system is inhibitory.
         1. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is correct explanation to ‘A’.
         2. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not correct explanation to ‘A’
         3. ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false                           4. ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
48.    Which of the following is incorrectly linked with the contributing nerves?
          1. Sacral plexus - L1to L3, branch of L4 and L5    2. Brachial plexus - C5 through T1
          3. Lumbar plexus - T12 through L4                 4. Cervical plexus- C1 through C4
49.    The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
         1. Constricts bronchi                                        2. Inhibits activity of pancreas
         3. Promotes emptying urinary bladder          4. Dilates blood vessels
50.    Which of the following is not properly associated with the characteristics?
         1. Dorsal root – linked to lateral gray horn  2. Conus medullaris – region with neurons
         3. Spinal neurocoel – continuation of the fourth ventricle of the brain
         4. Horns – regions of cell bodies and unmyelinated axons
51.    Cerebral peduncles are a pair of longitudinal bands of nervous tissue in the ventral portion of
         1. Cerebrum                 2. Cerebellum             3.Mid brain                  4. Pons varolii
52.   This one is associated with ‘cholinergic postganglionic neurons’ of autonomous nervous system
         1. Cranial plexus          2. Lumbar plexus       3.Thoracic plexus       4.Pelvic plexus
53.    Cauda equina is enclosed within
         1. Spinal cord                                                    2. Neural canal           
         3.Filum terminale                                             4. Conus medullaris
54.    The first spinal nerve emerges out through/in between
         1. Foramen magnum                                         2. Intervertebral foramen 
         3. Occipital bone and atlas                              4. Atlas and axis
55.    ASSERTION (A): All the spinal nerves are of mixed type.
         REASON (R): Each spinal nerves is formed by the union of a dorsal root which contains efferent neurons and a ventral roots which contains afferent neurons.
         1. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is correct explanation to ‘A’.
         2. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not correct explanation to ‘A’
         3. ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false                           4. ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
56.    Collateral ganglia are in
         1. Sympathetic chain                                         2. Cranio-sacral division
         3. Thoracolumbar division but outside the chain
         4. Craniosacral division but close to or within visceral organs
57.    Study the following about autonomous nervous system

Ganglion
Part of
Related to
I. Otic
PNS
Glossopharyngeal cranial nerve
II. Coeliac
SNS
Cervical spinal nerves
III. Pterygopalatine
PNS
Facial cranial nerve
IV. Posterior mesenteric
SNS
Sacral spinal nerves
         The correct ones of the above are
         1. II, III and IV only                                          2. III and IV only        
         3. I, II and III only                                             4. I and III only
58.   What is the first step in the activation of reflex arc?
         1. Activation of motor neuron                        2. Information processing
         3. Activation of receptor                                 4. Activation of a sensory neuron
59.    The motor pathway of somatic neural system has
         1. Two myelinated neurons                             2. One myelinated neuron
         3. One unmyelinated neuron                          4. Two unmyelinated neurons
60.    Post ganglionic nerves arising from this ganglion mostly innervate the organs that are posterior (inferior) to the diaphragm
            1. Ciliary                    2. Coeliac                  3.Otic                         4. Pterygopalatine
61.    Study the following regarding human:
         I. Cochlear nucleus is located at the junction of pons and medulla.
         II. Vestibular nuclear complex occur on the floor of fourth ventricle.
         III. Optic chiasma occurs in front of the infundibulum in the roof of thalamencephalon.
         The correct ones of the above is/are
         1. Only I and II             2. Only II and III         3.Only I                         4. I, II and III
62.    Match the following and choose the correct one
List-I
List-II
A. Primary visual cortex
1. Hypothalamus
B. Amygdala
2. Temporal lobe
C. Olfactory nerve
3. Occipital lobe
D. Satiety centre
4. Medulla oblongata

5. Limbic system
         1. A-5, B-2, C-3, D-4                                        2. A-3, B-5, C-2, D-1
         3. A-3, B-5, C-2, D-4                                        4. A-5, B-4, C-2, D-1
63.    Select the response that is not typical of parasympathetic stimulation
         1. Decreased secretion of renin                      2. Increase in peristalsis
         3. Relaxes bronchi                                            4. Dilation of blood vessels
64.    Part of human brain responsible for formation and recall of memory is
         1. Brain stem                                                     2. Cerebellum
         3. Hippocampus                                                4. Medulla oblongata
65.    Names of collateral ganglia are based on
         1. Their origin from spinal cord                     2. Emergence through intervertebral foramina
         3. Location within visceral organs                 4. Arteries close to their location
66.    Following ones are associated with parasympathetic nervous system
         1. 2nd to 4th sacral spinal nerves                     2. 1st to 5thsacral spinal nerves
         3. III, VII and IX thoracic spinal nerves        4. 3rd to 8th cervical spinal nerves
67.    ASSERTION (A): Most sympathetic postganglionic axons are shorter.
         REASON (R): Sympathetic trunk ganglia are nearer to the spinal cord.
         1. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is correct explanation to ‘A’.
         2. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not correct explanation to ‘A’
         3. ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false                           4. ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
68.    Which of the following does not produce any geneticchanges but once genetic changes occurred, it favours some genetic changes while rejecting others
         1. Natural selection                                          2. Genetic drift           
         3.Mutations                                                       4. Gene flow
69.    Following diagram represents a reflex arc. The incorrect one is
                                               
          1. A – anterior root of spinal nerve               2. C – muscle spindle (receptor)
          3. D – motor end plate (effector)                   4. B – internuncial neuron in gray matter
70.    Pneumotaxic centre is in
         1. Medulla oblongata  2. Inferior colliculi      3. Cerebrum                 4. Pons varolii
71. The right and left lobes of cerebral hemispheres of human brain are interconnected by a tract of nerve fibres called                                                                                                                                        
           1) Corpora striata       2) Crura cerebri          3) Arbor vitae             4) Corpus callosum         
72. The conical portion of spinal cord containing nervous tissue but lies inferior to lumbar enlargement is called                                                                                                                                   
           1) Posterior funiculus                                                                           2) Filum terminale           
          3) Conus medullaris                                         4) Brain stem                     
73. Match the following and choose the correct answer       
            CRANIAL NERVES                                               INNERVATION     
           A) Abducens nerve                                       I) Muscles of tongue
           B) Spinal accessory nerve                          II) Superior oblique muscles of eye ball
           C) Trochlear nerve                                      III) Ciliary and iris muscles of eye ball
           D) Hypoglossal nerve                                  IV) Lateral rectus muscles of eye ball
           E) Occulo motor nerve                               V) Pharynx and Larynx
                   A        B       C     D         E                                 A      B      C       D        E     
           1)    IV      V      II      III      I                             2)     III     V       I       II       IV
           3)    III      V      II       I       IV                           4)     IV     V      II       I        III                    
74. Association areas in cerebral cortex are functionally
           1) Sensory areas                                              2) Motor areas
           3) Both sensory and motor areas                  4) Neither sensory nor motor areas                                
75. The following are a list of ganglia present in the nervous system of man
           A) Ciliary ganglion                                      B) Coeliac ganglion            C) Pelvic ganglion
           D) Sub mandilular ganglion                       E) Otic ganglion                  F) Gasserian ganglion
           G) Pterygo palatine ganglion                    H) Vagus ganglion
           Among these, select the ganglia of parasympathetic division                                                            
           1) A, B, C and F only                                       2) A, D, E and G only                                                        3) A, C, D and F only                                      4) A, D, E and F only
76. Arrange the following events of synaptic transmission in their correct order
           A) Influx of  into the bouton
           B) Depolarization of presynaptic membrane
           C) Fusion of synaptic vesicles with presynaptic membrane
           D) Depolarization or hyper polarization of post synaptic membrane
           E) Opening of  voltage gated channels
           F) Attachment of neuro transmitter molecules to receptors on post synaptic membrane           
           1) BEACFD                              2) BACFED                                                3) BEADFC                              4) BEADCF                       
77. Assertion (A): In hyperpolarized condition, the inner side of axolemma becomes more negative than – 70mv
           Reason (R): During hyperpolarized condition both gates of Na+ channels remain closed, while voltage gated K+ channels are opened                                                                                         
            1) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
            2) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A                                                                3) A is true but R is false                            4) A is false but R is true
78. Which of the following is not effected by sympathetic nervous system.
           1) Dilation of eye pupil and relaxation of bronchi                         
           2) Stimulation of salivary secretion and increasing of secretion of renin                                           3) Constriction of blood vessels and slowing down the rate of heart contraction                              4) Increase of peristalisis and promoting emptying of urinary bladder                       
79. Thin and webby membrane covering the brain is called                                                              
            1) Duramater             2) Arachnoid mater              3) Piamater                4) Arbor vitae
80.  ASSERTION (A): Eustachian tube helps in protecting the ear drum.
       REASON (R): The pressure exerted by the waves coming through external auditory meatus, is equalized by the pressure exerted by the waves coming from buccal cavity into which Eustachian tube opens into.
       1. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is correct explanation to ‘A’.
       2. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not correct explanation to ‘A’
       3. ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false                             4. ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
81.  Visual cortex lies in this part of brain
       1. Temporal lobe                                                2. Occipital lobe          
       3. Optic chiasma                                                 4. Inferior colliculi
82.  Tympanic membrane is a part of
       1. Middle ear                 2. Outer ear               3. Inner ear                   4. Eustachian tube
83. Otolith organ comprises of
       1. Ampulla and crista                                        2. Cochlea and semicircular canals         
       3. Saccule and utricle                                        4. Ampulla and macula
84Study the following:
       I. Light induces the dissociation of retinal from opsin.
       II. Retinal is the derivative of vitamin A.
       III. The only photopigment in rods is rhodopsin but three different cone photopigments are present in retina.
       Correct ones of the above is/are
       1. Only I and II              2. Only II and III         3. Only I and III             4. I, II and III
85.  Proprioceptors occur in
       1. Organ of Corti                                                2. Cochlea                     
       3. Tympanic cavity                                            4. Otolith organ
86.  White of the eye is
       1. Iris                              2. Sclera                       3. Lens                            4. Uvea
87.  Set of non-vascular parts of eye is
       1. Lens, Cornea                                                   2. Ciliary body, iris     
       3. Choroid, cornea                                             4. Retina, lens
88.  Lysozyme occurs in
       1. Aqueous humour                                           2. Vitreous humour
       3. Lacrimal fluid                                                 4. Ceruminous glands
89.  ASSERTION (A): In ear hair cells present on tectorial membrane are responsible for hearing.
       REASON (R): At the time of hearing, the waves generated in the peri and endolymphs bend hair cells, pressing them against the tectorial membrane due to which nerve impulses are generated in the associated afferent neurons.
       1. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is correct explanation to ‘A’.
       2. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not correct explanation to ‘A’
       3. ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false                             4. ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
90.  Correct pair is
       1. Optic disc – No rods but only cones          2. Macula - Vestibule  
       3. Scotopic vision – Iodopsin                          4. Tympanic cavity – Fluid filled cavity
91.  Which of the following is a balancing organ?
       1. Organ of Corti                                                2. Cochlea                     
       3. Vestibular apparatus                                                                             4. Middle ear
92.  Incorrect one of the following regarding human evolution is
       1. 1 lakh to 40,000 years ago – Homo neanderthalensis lived is east and central Asia
       2. 18,000 years ago – agriculture came thereby human settlements started
       3. 1.5million years ago – Homo erectus evolved
       4. 75,000 to 10,000 years ago – modern man arose in Africa and moved across the continents
93.  Study the following about human ear
List I
List II
List III
I. Scala media
Filled with endolymph
Basilar membrane separates it from scala tympani
II. Scala vestibuli
Filled with perilymph
Tectorial membrane separates it from scala media
III. Scala tympani
Filled with perilymph
Terminates at round window
IV. Vestibule
Part of bony labyrinth
Located just between tympanum and cochlea
       The correct ones of the above are
       1. II, III and IV only                                            2. III and IV only          
       3. I, II and III only                                               4. I and III only
94.  Following is the microscopic structure of the retina
       Incorrectly labeled one is
       1. A - closest to the vitreous chamber            2. B - Bipolar cell
       3. C – Ganglion cell                                           4. D – Cone cell
95.  Near or far vision in a normal person is attained by changing the
       1. Position of retina                                           2. Area of pupil            
       3. Shape of lens                                                  4. Position of cornea
96.  Aqueous humor is secreted by
       1. Lacrimal glands                                              2. Ciliary processes     
       3. Iris                                                                    4. Scleral venous sinus
97.  ASSERTION (A): The amount of light entering into the vitreous chamber through the pupil of eye is regulated by iris.
       REASON ( R): The six extra ocular muscles associated with iris plays crucial role in increasing or reducing the size of pupil.
       1. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is correct explanation to ‘A’.
       2. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not correct explanation to ‘A’
       3. ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false                             4. ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
98.  Correct one of the following is
       1. Interoceptors - taste                                       2. Frigidoceptors - touch   
       3. Exteroceptors - visceroceptors                    4. Proprioceptors – tendons
99.  Receptors for gravity present in
       1. Cochlea                                                           2. Vestibule                  
       3. Semicircular canals                                       4. Middle ear
100.Match the following and choose the correct one
       List-I
List-II
A. Fenestra rotunda
1. Temporal bone
B. Crista
2. End of scala vestibule
C. Fenestra ovalis
3. Leads to middle ear
D. Tympanic cavity
4. End of scala tympani

5. Ridge in ampulla with hair cells
       1. A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1                                         2. A-3, B-5, C-2, D-1
       3. A-2, B-5, C-4, D-3                                         4. A-5, B-4, C-2, D-1
101.  A  Progressive neurologic disease of the brain is a symptom of
          1) Stroke                       2) Meningitis                   3) Alzheimer’s disease 4) Cushing’s syndrome
102.  Rapid loss of brain functions due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain is called
       1) Parkinson’s disease 2) Cerebro – Vascular Accident     3) Meningitis      4) Alzheimer’s disease
103.    Pneumotaxic centre is located at
            1) pons of brain stem                               2) pons of midbrain
            3) hypothalamus of forebrain                4) hypothalamus of brain stem
104.  Assertion (A) : Lesion of satiety centre in hypothalamus causes severe hyperphagia that results in morbid obesity.       
          Reason (R) : Stimulation of satiety centre causes cessation of eating.
          1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
          2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
          3) (A) is true but (R) is false                                 4) (A) is false but (R) is true
105.  Study the following statements with respect to retina of eye.
          I) Dendrites of bipolar cells synapse with photoreceptors.
          II) Rhodopsin is more sensitive to light than iodopsin
          III) Fobea is responsible for sharp-central vision
          Which of the above are correct?                      
          1) Only I & III                 2) Only III                       3) I, II, III                         4) Only II & III
106.  Choose the correct statement.                          
        1) Left cerebral hemisphere is the dominant cerebral hemisphere with respect to language and speech in humans.
          2) In the inner ear of human, hair cells of crista provide a sense of linear acceleration
          3) Scala tympani terminates at the “oval window” which leads to the middle ear in human.
          4) When a nerve fibre is stimulated influx of Na+ is independent of strength of stimulus before threshold potential
107.  A main function of the autonomic nervous system, which consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, is to
          1) Act as an inhibitory system for skeletal muscle
          2) Control the activity of a variety of secretory cells throughout the body
          3) Communicate between the two halves of the brain
          4) Initiate the heart beat
108.  Suppose you were a neuroscientist and had been given a sample of a new snake venom. You test its effect on action at a synapse, and find that it increases the magnitude of the normal depolarizing excitatory response.  The most likely explanation for this is that the venom is
          1) Blocking release of the neurotransmitter from the vesicles
          2) Binding with the neurotransmitter receptors to mimic the action of the neurotransmitter
          3) Acting to break-down the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft
          4) Preventing the presynaptic action potential from arriving at the synapse
109.  Cranial nerve of human that innervates superior oblique muscles of eye ball is
          1) Oculomotor                2) Abducens                   3) Trochlear                   4) Optic
110.  Study the following about autonomic nervous system:
          Character                      Sympathetic Stimulation       Parasympathetic Stimulation
          I) Type of response      Fight or flight                      Rest and digest
          II) Heart beat                Increases                              Decreases
          III) Pupil                        Dilates                                   Constricts
          IV) Bronchi                    Relaxes                                  Constricts                                    
          Which of the above are true?
          1) Only I, III and IV       2) Only I, II and IV        3) Only I, II and III         4) All are true
111.  Sodium-potassium pump transports                
          1) Three sodium ions into ECF and two potassium ions into the cell
          2) Three potassium ions into ECF and two sodium ions into the cell
          3) Two sodium ions into ECF and three potassium ions into the cell
          4) Two potassium ions into ECF and three sodium ions into the cell
112.  Assertion (A) : When axolemma is stimulated, it first gets depolarized and then becomes repolarized
          Reason (R) : When axolemma is depolarized, voltage-gated K+ channels open more slowly than those of Na+                  
          1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
          2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
          3) (A) is true but (R) is false                         4) (A) is false but (R) is true
113.  The following are some events in the transmission of nerve impulse from one neuron to another neuron
          A) Synaptic Transmission                                  
          B) Graded potential in the postsynaptic neuron
          C) Action potential in the presynaptic neuron
          D) Action potential in the post synaptic neuron  E) Summation in post synaptic neuron.
          What is their correct sequence?
          1) C A D B E                   2) A C B D E                  3) C A B E D                   4) C A B D E
114.  Assertion (A) : Troponin and tropomyosin of thin filament of myofibril are often called regulatory proteins.
          Reason (R) : These proteins play an important role in masking and unmasking the active sites
          1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
          2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
           3) (A) is true but (R) is false                           4) (A) is false but (R) is true
115. In brain arbor vitae is the white matter of the
       1. ‘Little brain’              2. ‘Thermostat of body’3. Limbic system   4. Brain stem
116. Cranial nerve that ends in the lateral rectus muscle of the eye ball is
       1. Trochlear                   2. Abducens                3. Oculomotor            4. Trigeminal
117. ASSERTION (A): Relative refractive period coincides with the period of hyperpolarisation.
REASON (R): During the hyperpolarisation period, even a very strong stimulus cannot initiate a second action potential.
       1. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is correct explanation to ‘A’.
       2. Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not correct explanation to ‘A’
       3. ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false                             4. ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
118. An activity related with flight or flight response of autonomous nervous system is
       1. Promotes emptying the urinary bladder    2. Increases peristalsis
       3. Dilates blood all vessels                               4. Increases secretion of rennin
119. The limbic system of brain includes
         1) amygdale, hippocampus                              2) hippocampus, hypothalamus
         3) amygdale, hippocampus, hypothalamus   4) corpus callosum
120. Choose the charater related to ‘the relay station’ between cerebellum, spinal cord and rest of brain
         1) it has third ventricle                                                                                     2) it is the little brain        
            3) it has central canal                      4) it has pneumotaxic centre
121. Statement (S): Damage of cerbellum leads to ataxia of involuntary muscles..
Reason (R): Cerebellum is the gyroscope of the body.
         1) Both (S) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (S)         
           2) (S) is false but (R) is true
         3) Both (S) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (S)     
         4) (S) is true but (R) is false
122. The development of these structures in human brain indicate peak of evolution in nervous system
         1) cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum           2) Hippocampus, Corpora quadrigemina
         3) Cerebral cortex, Collossal commissure    4) limbic system, cerebral medulla
123. Choose correct combination related to human brain
         Part                                     Character                                   Function
         a) Hypothalamus              anterior choroid plexus           Osmoregulation
         b) Cerebellum                   arborvitae                                  control of respiratory muscles
         c) Medulla oblongata      Posterior choroid plexus         Cardio vascular centre
         d) Cerebral cortex           gyri and sulci                             memory and communication
         1) a, c, d                       2) b, c, d                        3) a, b, c                                 4) c, d only
124. Diocoel and myelocoel are connected by
         1) iter                           2) foramina of Monro 3) foramen magnum             4) central canal
125. Choose incorrect statement about the ‘middle man’ between receptors and effectors
         1) it is found in the neural canal of back bone       2) its central canal is lined by ependyma
         3) its right and left halves are separated by dorsal median fissure and ventral median sulcus
         4) its white matter is organized into funiculi
126. The motor nerve originating from pons innervates this muscle of eyeball
         1) inferior oblique     2) superior oblique     3) medial rectus                    4) lateral rectus
127. Sacral out flow of parasympathetic division includes preganglionic fibres of
         1) III, VII, IX cranial nerves                             2) vagus nevve                    
         3) 1st to 4th sacral spinal nerves                      4) 2nd, 3rd and 4th sacral spiral nerves
128. Identify the ganglia with post ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic and sympathetic division respectively
         1) superior mesenteric, otic                             2) pterygopalatine, coeliac
         3) inferior mesenteric, submandibular          4) ciliary,  pterygopalatine
129. The cranial nerve which carries motor impulses to muscles tongue is
         1) hypoglossal            2) glossopharyngeal   3) facial                                 4) trigeminal
130. The location of cochlear nucleus
         1) floor of myelocoel                                                                                       2) junction of pons and medulla
         3) near utriculus                                                4) near organ of Corti
131. The spinal nerves which form the coccygeal plexus are
         1) 4th, 5th sacral and coccygeal nerves           2) first four sacral and coccygeal nerves
         3) first three sacral and coccygeal nerves      
          4) first three lumbar and branch of 4th and 5th sacral nerves
132. Identify correct set of matching
         List-I(Cranial nerve No)                                List-II(innervated part)
         A) V                                                                     i) pharynx
         B) VII                                                                 ii) tongue muscles
         C) IX                                                                   iii) salivary gland
         D) X                                                                     iv) cardiac muscle
         E) XI                                                                   v) muscles of lowerjaw
                                                                                      vi) muscles of neck
         1) A-v, B-iii, C-i, D-iv, E-vi                             2) A-iii, B-i, C-v, D-iv, E-ii
         3) A-v, B-ii, C-iii, D-vi, E-iv                           4) A-i, B-iii, C-vi, D-iv, E-ii
133. Choose correct set of statements about thoracolumbar division
         i) its post ganglionic nerve fibres are cholinergic
         ii) its ganglia form a chain on either side of back bone
         iii) it inhibits the secreton of saliva and renin
         iv) it increases cardiac out put
         1) i, ii, iv                      2) ii, iii, iv                     3) ii, iv                                   4) i, iv
134. The first human – like being with a cranial capacity of 650 - 800 cc
         1) Homo habilis          2) Homo erectus          3) Homo neanderthalensis 4) Homo sapiens
135. Observe the picture given below that is related to nerve impulse propagation.
         Identify the stage in which the voltage gated Na+ channel is closed and the K+ channel is open and
         even a strong stimulus cannot initiate the second action potential.
         1) C and D                   2) E                                3) A and E                             4) D
136. Which of the following is a set of inhibitory neurotransmitters ?
         1) epinephrine, serotonin                                2) Glycine, epinephrine
         3) Glycine, GABA                                             4) dopamine, nor epinephrine
137. Progressive death of neurons leading to loss of intellectual abilities and memory is a sign of
         1) Alzheimer’s disease                                         2) Parkinson’s disease             3) Meningitis  4) Myasthenia gravis
138. If the ligand – gated channels of post synaptic membrane are experimentally blocked by introducing certain chemicals into synaptic cleft, then the impact would be
         1) acetylcholine can bind to post synaptic membrane
         2) graded potentials generate in post synaptic neuron
         3) pre synaptic membrane is not depolarised and neurotransmitter is not released
         4) new potential cannot be generated in post synaptic membrane.
139. Choose correct combination with reference to human eye
                Part                             Character                                          Function
       A) Iris muscle                  unstriated, imvoluntary muscle   regulation of entry of amount of
                                                                                                                 light into vitreous chamber
       B) Fovea centralis          presence of cones only                    sharp, central vision
       C) Ciliary processes       pigmented, vascular part               secretion of vitreous humor
       D) Rods                             with rhodopsin                                  photopic vision
         1) A, B only                 2) B,C only                   3) A,B,C only                        4) A,B,D only
140. Choose incorrect statement about ‘Scala tympani’ in human ear
         1) it is separated from scala media by basilar membrane
         2) it terminates at the ‘round window’          3) it is filled with endolymph
         4) the waves in its fluid can ripple the basilar membrane
141. Choose correct combination.
         1) Ampulla – otolith organ                              2) Basilar membrane – organ of  Corti
         3) Reissner’s membrane – cells with stereocilia                                          4) saccule – crista
142. Choose correct set of statements related to the phase of nerve fibre in which its inner side becomes more negative than the normal potential
         i) the ‘lazy gates’ of nerve fibre open slowly during this phase
         ii) it is the ‘undershoot’ with a potential of about – 90 mv
         iii) the sodium in activation gate is open
         iv) it represents ‘relative refractory period’
         1) i , ii, iv                     2) iii, iv                         3) ii, iii, iv                              4) ii, iv
143. The visual cortex area of brain is located in
         1) superior colliculi   2) inferior colliculi     3) occipital lobe                   4) hippocampus.
144. The mixed cranial serve which is not associated with cranio-sacral outflow.
         1) occulomotor           2) facial                        3) trigeminal                         4) spinal accessory
145.      Assertion(A): Damage to little brain causes ataxia
Reason(R ): Little brain of the body acts as a gyroscope
1)A & R are true R explains A                               2)A&R are false
3)A is true but R is false                                         4)A is false but R is true
146.      Study the following statements  about brain and choose the correct ones
A) Areas that deal with memory and communication are associative areas
B) Most of the visceral functions of the body are controlled by hypothalamus
C) Limbic system with hypothalamus controls expression of emotional behaviour
D) Damage to pons Varolii inhibits conduction of stimuli between spinal cord and fore brain
1) only A& B                  2) only A&C                   3) only B&C                     4) A,B,C & D
147.      Choose the correct set from the following
Cranial nerve/branch  Origin                              Innervation
1)Olfactory                     Olfactory lobes               Nasal epithelium
2)Pathetic                        Floor of mid brain          Superior oblique muscles of eye ball
3)Acoustic                       Medulla                           Vestibular nucleus complex
4)Hypoglossal                Tongue muscles              Medulla oblongata
148.      Choose the correct set from the following
Organ                              Sympathetic N.S            Parasympathetic
A)Heart                           Increases force of         Decreases force of contraction
                                          contraction
B)Salivary secretion    Increased                        Decreased
C)Renin secretion         Increased                        Decreased
D)Bronchi                       Constricted                    Relaxed
1)A&C                             2)A&B                             3)B&C                               4)B&D
149.      Sodium and potassium activation gates are closed during
1)Resting phase                                                        2)Depolarisation
3)Repolarisation phase                                           4)Hyperpolarisation
150.      Wrong statement in the following  with reference to sensory receptors
1)Accommodation power of the eye is regulated by muscles of ciliary body
2)Muscles of the ciliary body are longitudinal smooth muscles
3)The linear sense of acceleration is perceived by macula of otolith organ
4)Blockage or haemorrhage of blood capillaries in brain causes CVA
151.   Cranial nerves related to parasympathetic nervous system are
           1) V, VII, IX, X           2) III, VIII, IX, X           3) III, VII, IX, X                  4) II, VII, IX, X
152.   Cranial nerve that innervates lateral rectus muscles of eye is
           1) Oculomotor           2) Abducens                 3) Trochlear                       4) Optic
153.   Which one of the following is related to the first human-like being.
           1) Hunted with sharp stone tools.                  2) Cranial capacity was 1400 cc.
           3) Walked in eastern Africa about 3 to 4 mya
           4) Used hides to protect their body.
154.   Removal of which part of brain causes immediate death?
           1) Inferior colliculi                                          2) Olfactory lobes
           3) Medulla oblongata                                      4) Optic lobes
155. Cyton of the neuron that has direct contact with salivary glands is present in
         1) Anterior mesenteric ganglion                   2) Medulla oblongata
           3) Grey mater of crus cerebrum                     4) Otic ganglion
156.   Study the following about autonomic nervous system              
           Character                                             Sympathetic                            Parasympathetic
                                                                           Stimulation                              Stimulation
           I. Blood vessel                                      Dilates                                            Constricts
           II. Gastrointestinal motility             Decreases                                Increases
           III. Secretion of digestive enzymes            Increases                     Decreases
           IV. Urinary bladder muscle             Relaxes                                     Contracts
           Which of the above are true?
           1) Only II and III                                               2) Only I and IV          
           3) Only II, III and IV                                         4) Only II and IV
157.   Consider the following statements about the brain
           I. Diocoel communicates with myelocoel through iter.
           II. 1st and 2nd ventricles communicate with diocoel through foramen Magnum.
           III. Pons varolii is non-nervous and connects the two cerebellar hemispheres
           Which of the above statements are true?
           1) Only I and III         2) Only II and III          3) Only I                             4) All are true
158.   In axon, sodium – potassium pump transports
           1) Two sodium ions into ECF and three potassium ions into the cell
           2) Three potassium ions into ECF and two sodium ions into the cell
           3) Three sodium ions into ECF and two potassium ions into the cell
           4) Two potassium ions into ECF and three sodium ions into the cell
159.   From resting state (-70 mV) to the peak of depolarizing phase potential on the inner side of axolemma rises by
           1) 45 mV                     2) 115 mV                    3) 135mV                           4) 105 mV
160.   Match the following and choose the correct combination
           List – I                                                               List – II
           A. IPSP                                                              1. Saltatory conduction
           B. Action Potential                                         2. Depolarization
           C. EPSP                                                             3. All or none
           D. Post synaptic potentials                           4. Graded
                                                                                       5. Hyperpolarization
           1) A-2, B-3, C-5, D-4                                       2) A-5. B-3, C-2, D-1
           3) A-5, B-4, C-2, D-3                                       4) A-5, B-3, C-2, D-4
161.   Assertion (A): During relative refractory period, a secondary action potential can be initiated by a larger – than – normal stimulus
           Reason (R): During this period voltage gated Na+ channels remain open and K+ channels are closed
         1)  A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
         2)  A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
         3)  A is true, R is false.                                               4)  A is false, R is true.
162.  Expression of emotional reactions and libido are regulated by
          1) Pons Varolii and adrenal medulla
          2) Cerebral cortex and colliculi
          3) Limbic system and hypothalamus
          4) Thermostat of the body and corpus callosum
163.  Read the following statements and find the incorrect
          A. Eye muscles receive their innervations from III, IV and VI cranial nerves.
          B. Fovea centralis of retina cannot form the images.
          C. Stapes is found in between fenestra ovalis and anvil bone.
          D. Organ of corti is present on basilar membrane.
          1) A - B                             2) B – D                          3) C – D                        4) B only
164.  Canal of schlemm lies at the junction of
          1) Yellow spot and blind spot                               2) Round window and oval window
          3) Scala media and scala tympani                         4) Sclera and cornea
165.  The motor cranial nerve associated with cranio sacral outflow
          1) Occulomotor          2) Trochlear                3) Trigeminal              4) Glosso – pharyngeal
166.  The largest and strongest free vertebrae of humans are
          1) sacrum                    2) thorasic                   3) lumbar                    4) cervical
167.  Study the following  statements
          I) Macula lutea in the centre has only cones
          II) Macula of internal ear is a part associated with semi circular canals
          III) Synapse is a structural gap and a functional bridge
          IV) Memory and communication functions are dealt by association areas of brain
          Correct statements
          1)I, II and IV                2) I, III and IV             3) II, III and IV            4) I and II
168.  Note the following :
          a) The dark lines across the muscle are called intercalated discs (IDs)
          b) Thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments are present in sarcoplasm but they are not arranged regularly.
          c) Satellite cells which are quiescent mononucleate and myogenic cells help in regeneration.
          d) The excitation of one cell results in the excitation of all other cells quickly to produce a whole hearted contraction of the entire muscle as a single unit.
          Which of the above are true for cardiac muscle ?
          1) b and c                    2) a and d                    3) a and c                     4) d and c
169.  Observe the following diagram related to synaptic transmission and identify the A, B, C, D, E, F and G which are pointed out in the diagram.

                                              
          1) B = Neurotransmitters, E = Synapse, C = Pre synaptic membrane
          2) F = Synaptic cleft, G = Neurotransmitters, A = Receptor         
          3) A = Receptor, F = Synapse, B = Synaptic vesicle                      
          4) D = Pre synaptic membrane, A = Ligand gated channel, E = Synapse






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