Saturday, July 18, 2015


1.         Read the following and choose the correct combinations
            I. Flame bulb is a cellular unit of protonephridium         
            II. Metanephridia are found in insects
            III. Green glands are found at the base of antennae in arachnids
            IV. Pericardial glands are the excretory structures of certain molluscs
            1) I and II                   2) I and III              3) I and IV                                 4) II, III and IV
2.         In human kidney, the blood vessel which is not a portal vein but starts with blood capillaries and end with blood capillaries is
            1) afferent arteriole                                     2) renal vein             
3) renal artery                                               4) efferent arteriole
3.         Match the following and choose the correct answer
List – I
List – II
A.  JG cells
I. Angiotensinogen
B.  Lungs
II. Angiotensin converting enzyme
C.  Liver
III. Atrial natriuritic peptide
D.  Heart
IV. Aldosterone

V. Renin
            1) A-I, B-II, C-V and D-III                           2) A-II, B-IV, C-I and D-III
            3) A-V, B-II, C-I and D-III                           4) A-V, B-II, C-IV and D-I
4.         Ascending limb of loop of Henle is
            1) permeable to water                                  2) impermeable to water
            3) impermeable to both salts and water    4) impermeable to salts
5.         More the vasopressin secretion into the medium,
            1) more the reabsorption in PCT                2) more the volume of urine
            3) more the constriction of blood vessels  4) more the volume of blood and urine
6.       JG cells in kidney release the enzyme      
           1) Rennin                    2) ACE                         3) Renin                       4) Angiotensin                 
7.       The descending limb of loop of Henle is  
           1) Impermeable to water                                
           2) Permeable to electrolyte and impermeable to water
           3) Permeable to water and almost impermeable to electrolytes
           4) Impermeable to electrolytes and water                                        
8.       A person suffers from frequent urination, feels thirsty and there is no glucose in the urine, what may be the cause       
           1) Hyposecretion of posterior lobe of pituitary
           2) Hypersecretion of posterior lobe of pituitary
           3) Hyposecretion of adrenal gland               4) Hyper secretion of thyroid
9.      Identify the incorrect statement concern to the formation of urin.
           I) PCT involves in the active transport of and passive transport of glucose
           II) Henle`s loop plays a significant role in the maintenance of high osmolarity of the medullary interstial fluid
           III) DCT does not involve much in reabsorption
           IV) Collecting duct plays a role in the maintenance of pH and ionic balance of blood by selective secretion of and ions           
          1) II                              2) I                              3) III                            4) IV
10. Correct path way of glomerular filtrate/ urin      elimination                                                                
          1) Filtrate renal pelviscalycesrenal papillaeureterurinary bladder
          2) Filtrate renal papillaerenalpelviscalycesureter urinary bladder
          3) Filtraterenal papillae calyces  renal pelvisurethraureterurinary bladder
          4) Filtrate renalpapillecalycesrenal pelvisureterurinary bladderurethra               
11. Identify the correct statements
           I) The hydrostatic pressure of the blood flowing in the glomerulus is less than the total opposing pressures.
           II) Bowman`s capsular hydrostatic pressure is less than the glomerular colloidal osmotic pressure.
           III) Net filtration pressure is less than Bowman`s capsular hydrostatic pressure.
           IV) Hydrostatic pressure of the blood flowing in the glomerulus is higher than glomerular colloidal osmatic pressure 1) I, II, III        2) II, III, IV     3) I, III, IV      4) I, II, III       
12.          Incorrect statements about the excretion of nitrogen wastes in the following are
A)Elimination of nitrogenous waste as ammonia occurs in majority of the animals as it can be formed and eliminated very easily
B)A net of dead end tubules with solenocytes are primarily concerned with excretion
C)Paired structures at the bases of antennae eliminate waste products from haemolymph to outside in crustaceans
D)Excretory glands of molluscs are pericardial glands
1)A&B                             2)B,C&D                          3)C&D                               4)A,C&D
13.          Cortical nephrons differ from juxtamedullary nephrons in their
1)Location                                                                 2)Length of loops of Henle
3)Vasa recta                                                              4)All
14.          Defect in ADH receptors leads to diabetes insipidus resulting in
1) Prevention of dieresis                                         2) Increased BP               
3) Concentrated urine                                             4) Fall in BP
15.           Following are the different stages in haemodialysis
A)Taking out blood from an artery                   B)Taking out blood from a vein
C)Addition of antiheparin                                    D)Addition  of heparin
E)Pumping the blood into the body through a vein
F)Pumping the blood into the body through an artery
G)Passing the blood through dialyser
Arrange the correct of the above steps in sequence
1)B-C-G-D-B                  2)A-D-G-C-E                  3)A-D-G-C-F                    4)B-D-G-C-B
16.          Type of  material whose release does not cause the loss of water from the body is
1)Urine                            2)Sweat                            3)Saliva                             4)Bile pigment from liver
17.      Ureters are lined by
            1. Psuedostratified ciliated epithelium     2. pseudostratified non ciliated epithelium
            3. Transitional epithelium                           4. Simple columnar epithelium
18.      Which of the following substances are essential and are efficiently reabsorbed
             1. Creatinine                                                2. Urea                            
             3. Uric acid                                                   4. Glucose and aminoacids
19.  Identify the correct  match
       1. Passive reabsorption of Nacl-    Thick segment of AL
       2. Active reabsorption of Nacl-      Thin segment of AL
      3. Active reabsorption  of Na+ -      PCT         4. Active reabsorption of Cl- -         PCT
20. Facultative water reabsorption occurs in
       1. PCT, DL                      2. DL, AL                   3. PCT, DCT                   4. DCT, CD
21. % of  urea in urine
       1. 96%                             2. 26 %                       3. 56 %                             4. 2 %
22. The enzyme that converts angiotensin  I  into angiotensin II secreted by
       1. Liver                           2. Lings                      3. Heart                            4. Kidney
23.   Which of the following acts as counter check on RAAS
       1.Aldosterone mechanism                               2. Angiotensin I mechanism
       3. ANP mechanism                                            4. Renin mechanism
24.    Assertion (A) : Human kidneys produce urine nearly four times concentrated than the initial filtrate formed
          Reason (R ) : Counter current mechanism helps to maintain a concentration gradient in the medullary interstitium which helps in reabsorbtion of water from the collecting duct.
          1) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
          2) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A
            3) A is true and R is false        4) A is false and R is true
25.    Hamburger’s phenomenon explains
          1) Intake of  by tissue cells                             2) Formation of acid hemoglobin (HHb)
          3) Exchange of chloride ions and bicarbonate ions between plasma and RBC
          4) Absorption of  by the muscles of the heart                                                                   
26.    Arrangement of the following structures which facilitate counter current mechanism
          1) Henle’s loop and glomerulus                    2) Henle’s loop and PCT
          3) Henle’s loop and vasarecta                       4) PCT & DCT

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