Saturday, July 18, 2015

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ASSIGNMENT

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
1.      Assertion (A) : Cyclic AMP it termed a second messenger.
Reason (R) : It translates the presence of the first messenger, water soluble hormone, into a response inside the cell
1) A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
2) A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
          3) A is true, R is false.                                          4)  A is false, R is true.
2.      Study the following with respect to hormones
          I. Hormones are non – species specific          
          II) They accelerate or inhibit one or more physiological activities
          III) The effects of hormones in target cells persist for a relatively longer period
          Which of the above are correct?
          1) only III                     2) only II and III              3) only I and III              4) I, II, III
3.      Assertion (A) : The secretion of hormones is in very small quantity
Reason (R) : Hormones can be reutilized after their degradation
1) A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2) A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
          3) A is false, R is true.                                          4)  A is true, R is false.
4.      Vasopressin is
          1) Lipid soluble protein hormone                       2) Water soluble peptide hormone
          3) Lipid soluble peptide hormone                      4) Water soluble protein hormone
5.      Choose the local hormones
          1) FSH and LH                                                       2) TSH and ACTH
          3) Gastrin and somatotropin                                4) Somatostatin and Gastrin
6.      Find out the derivatives of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids
          1)  Catecholamines     2)  Iodothyronins            3)  Eicosanoids              4)  Gonadotropins
7.      Study the following regarding the mechanism of hormonal action
          a) specific mRNA       b) Aldosterone – receptor complex                    c) Protein     
          d) Binds to DNA         e) Aldosterone                f) Translation                g) Transcription
          Arrange the above in correct order
          1) b – e – c – d – g – f – a                                     2) e – b – a – d – g – f – c
          3) b – e – d – a – f – g – c                                     4) e – b – d – a – g – f – c
8.      Which of the following are released to the exterior and help in chemo – communication ?
          1) Melatonin                2) Cytokines                    3) Pheromones               4) Catecholamines
9.      The term hormone was coined by
          1) Bayliss                     2) Addison                       3) Langerhan                  4) Starling
10.    Study the following
          Class of hormone            Example                     Derived from
          I. Steroid hormone          Estrogen                   Cholesterol
          II. Peptide hormone        TSH                            Polymers of amino acids
          III. Amine hormone        Melatonin                 Tryptophan       
          IV. Protein hormone       ACTH                        Polymer of numerous amino acids
          Which of the above are true ?
          1) only III & IV                  2) I, II, III                    3) I, III, IV                        4) only I & IV
11.    Prostaglandins are derivatives of
          1) A single amino acid                                          2) Polymers of amino acids
          3) Glyco – proteins                                               4) Eicosanoids
12.    Find out the membrane enzyme of hepatocyte
          1) Phosphorylase        2) Adenylate cyclase     3) Protein kinase – A    4) Transacetylase
13.    Assertion (A) : The hormonal mechanism of steroid hormones is called mobile – receptor mechanism.
Reason (R) : The receptors of lipid soluble hormones are not fixed in the cell membrane
1) A is true, R is false.
2) A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
          3) A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.     4)  A is false, R is true.
14.    Find out the fight and flight response of the body from the following
          1) Glycogenolysis                                                  2) Lipogenesis               
          3) Glycogenesis                                                     4) Conversion of cAMP into ATP
15.     The pancreas secretes insulin in response to
          1) An increase in body activity        2) A hormone released by the pituitary gland
            3) Low blood glucose                      4) High blood glucose
16.     A tumour in the adrenal zona glomerulosa can cause hypersecretion of hormones produced in that region.  Which of the following might you expect to find in a patient with such a tumour?
          1) Increased blood sodium levels                        2) Increased blood glucose levels
          3) Decreased blood calcium levels                      4) Increased dehydration
17.     Hormone that stimulates contraction of gall bladder for release of bile juice into intestine is      
          1) Secretin                      2) Cholecystokinin       3) Enterogastrone          4) Gastrin
18.     Match the following and choose the correct combination
          A) Milk ejection                                 1) MSH
          B) Milk secretion                               2) Oxytocin
          C) Biological clock                            3) Melatonin
          D) Gestation hormone                       4) Prolactin
                                                                          5) Progesterone
                A      B         C         D                                                         A         B         C           D       
          1)  2      4          1          5                                               2)       4          2          3           5
          3)  2      4          3          5                                               4)       2          4          5           3
19.     Assertion (A) : Thyroid hormones can maintain normal body temperature
          Reason (R) : Thyroid hormones stimulate the use of cellular oxygen to produce ATP.  As Cells produce and use more ATP, more heat is given off
          1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
          2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
          3) (A) is true but (R) is false                         4) (A) is false but (R) is true
20.     Consider the following statements about thyroid gland
          I) It is the largest endocrine gland and is endodermal
          II) Its follicular cells secrete hormones which stimulate erythropoiesis
          III) Its follicular cells secrete hormones derived from tyrosine
          IV) Its parafollicular cells secrete hypercalcaemic hormone            
          Which of the above statements are true?
          1) Only I, III and IV       2) Only I, II and IV        3) Only I, II and III         4) All are true
21.     Consider the following statements
        I. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) accelerate protein synthesis and decrease catabolism of  proteins
          II. Thyroid hormones stimulate protein synthesis
          III. Glucocorticoids stimulate catabolism of proteins
          Which of the above statements are true?       
          1) Only I and II               2) Only II and III            3) Only I and III             4) All are true
22.     Study the following about endocrine disorders:
          Hormone                        Hyposecretion              Hypersecretion                                  
          I) Insulin                         Diabetes mellitus         Insulin shock
          II) Thyroxine                Cretinism                       Myxedema
          III) Parathormone       Tetany                            Renal calculi
          IV) Cortisol                   Cushing’s syndrome    Addison’s disease
          Which of the above are true?
            1) Only I, III and IV  2) Only I, II and III    3) Only I and III        4) All are true
23.  Study the following:
       Disease
Due to
Symptom
A. Addison’s disease
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids
Reduced blood pressure
B. Diabetes insipidus
Deficiency of ADH
Loss of sugar in urine
C. Cushing’s syndrome
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids
Hyperglycemia
D. Myxedema
Hypothyroidism
Protrusion of eye balls
       Correct one of the above are
            1. A, B and C only    2. B, C and D only    3. A and C only         4. A, B and D only
24.  Melatonin is not concerned with
       1. Regulation of 24 hour rhythms                    2. Helps in maintaining body temperature
       3. Maintaining sleep-awake cycle                   4. Darkening hair
25. The following are the statements regarding pineal gland
           A) It is also called epiphysis cerebri
           B) It secretes a hormone called melatonin
           C) It helps in maintaining the normal rhythms of sleep wake cycle
           D) It promotes the production of antibodies to provide humoral immunity
           Which of the above are correct?
           1) A and B only          2) A, B and C only     3) B and C only          4) All
26. The following are the hormones secreted by suprarenal glands
           A) Cortisol                 B) Catecholamines             C) Aldosterone                    D) Androgens
           Arrange them in a correct sequence as secreted by the concerned zones of the glands from outside to inside                                                                                                                                                1) C – D – A – B     2) C – A – D – B       3) A – D – C – B       4) A – C – D – B
27. The rupture of graffian follicle and release of the secondary oocyte from it is stimulated by.
           1) Follicle stimulating hormone                    2) Progesterone                             
          3) Leutinizing hormone                                  4) Estrotgen                        
28. Match the following and select the correct combination of answers.
            List – I                                               List – II
           A) Cortisol                             I) Emergency hormone
           B) Adrenaline                        II) Increases blood calcium levels
           C) Thymosin                          III) Generation of anti inflammatory reactions
           D) Calcitriol                          IV) Decreases blood calcium levels
                                                            V) Promote immune responses
            A         B         C         D                                             A         B         C         D                                  
           1)    III       I       V      IV                                    2)    IV      II       I       V                                          
          3)    IV     III       II     V 4)    III       I       V      II                                             
29. A pair of hormones, produced by the same gland but exhibit antagonistic effect on target organ/ tissue.                                                                                                   
          1) Insulin and glucagon                                  2) Adrenaline and noradrenaline                                   
          3) Calcitonin and parathormone                    4) All the above                 
30. Hormone that is secreted by hypothalamus, but is stored and released by pituitary gland. 
           1) Somatotropin                                               2) Melonocyte stimulating hormone                  
          3) Vasopressin                                                  4) Melatonin                      
31. Formation of red blood corpuscles is stimulated by a pair of hormones that are secreted by 
           1) Adrenal gland and kidney                         2) Kidney and thyroid gland                                            3) Pancreas and muscle cells of atria of heart                                 
          4) Pineal gland and thymus gland                                                       
32. The production of milk and its ejection from mammary glands among child bearing women           are regulated respectively by                                                                                                                          
           1) Oxytocin and vasopressin                         2) Oxytocin and leuteotrophic hormone           
           3) Vasopressin and leuteotopic hormone    4) Leuteotropic hormone and oxytocin             
33. Read the following statements and select the correct pair among them.
           I) Calcitonin is secreted by thyroid gland and it raises the blood calcium level.
           II) Parathormone plays an important role in the process of bone resorption.
           III) Thyroid hormones and mineralocorticoids regulate and maintain water and electrolyte balance of body.
           IV) Skin pigmentation of human beings is under the direct control of M.S.H produced by Pars intermedia.                                                                                                                             
           1) All                            2) II & III                      3) III & IV                    4) I & IV                
34. Hormone involved in stimulating the cell division in the epiphysial plates of long bones.   
           1) Somatotropin         2) Somatostatin          3) Calcitonin               4) Tri-iodothyronine
35. Assertion (A): Thyroid hormones maintain normal body temperature.
      Reason (R): Thyroid hormones stimulate the use of cellular oxygen to produce ATP & as                cells produce and use more ATP, more heat is given off. 
           1) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A                                                      2) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
           3) A is true but R is false                                4) A is false but R is true 
 36. Select the mismatch among the following.                                                                                                 
           1) Atrial natriuretic peptide – dialation of blood vessels
           2) Insulin – hypoglycemic hormone
          3) Vasopressin – promotes diuresis             4) Catecholamines – secreted in response to stress
37.       Horomone                            Secreted by                           Function                   
           I. Mineralo corticoids         Zona glomerulosa               Regulate the balance of water and                                                                                                           electrolytes
           II. Gluco-corticoids             Zona fasciculata                 Carbohydrates metabolism
           III. MSH                                             Pineal body               Affects melanophores of skin
           IV. Oxytocin                          Hypothalamic neurons      Relaxation of uterine muscles    
           Select correct combination                                                                                                                                      1) All                         2) I and II only          3) I and III only         4) III and IV only
38. Hormones which are involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, stimulates ovulation, preparing the uterus for the implantation. Ejection of milk from the mammary gland respectively                                                                                                                                                     1) Luteinizing hormone, FSH, Progesterone and Oxytocin
             2) FSH, Leuteotropic hormone, Oestrogen and Oxytocin
          3) FSH, Luteinizing hormone, Progesterone and Oxytocin
          4) Leuteotropic hormone, Luteinizing hormone, progesterone and Oxytocin
39. Which of the following pairs is mismatched?                                                                                                         1) Hyperthyroidism- Exophthalmic goiter           2) Hyper secretion of somatotropin-cretinism
           3) Hypothyroidism- Myxedema                              4) The elevated level of cortisol-hyper glycemia
40. In the following flowchart ABC represents                                                                                                                                                            
           1) Somatocrinin, Somatostatin, somatotropin        2) IGF’s, somatocrinine, somatostatin
           3) Somatotropin, somatocrinine, IGF`s                  4) Somatocrinine, Somatotropin, IGF`s
41.   Choose incorrect combination.
         Disorder                      reason                                                                  effect
         i) DMD                        Genetic  disorder                                             degeneration of skeletal muscle
         ii) Tetany                    hyperparathyroidism                                      muscle spasm
         iii) Osteoporosis        low level of estrogen                                        decreased bone density
         iv) Goitre                    accumulation of uric acid crystals in joints       inflammation of joints      
            1) i, iii                                                2) i, ii, iv                    3) iii, iv                      4) ii, iv
42.          Choose the correct answer from the following
A) Amine hormone       E) ADH                            M) Corpus luteum
B) Protein hormone      F) Progesterone            N) Ectodermal part of adrenal gland
C) Peptide hormone     G) Catecholamines       O) Pancreas
D) Steroid hormone      H) Glucagon                   P) Hypothalamus           
1)AEN, BFM, DGP, CHO                                        2)AGN, BHO, CEP, DFM
3)AFN, BEM, CHO, SGP                                         4)AFM, BGN, CHO, DEP
43.          Set of  hormones with similar functions in the following
1)Insulin- Glucagon                                                 2)Epinephrine-Norepinephrine
3)Progesterone-FSH                                                4)Parathormone-Calcitonin
44.          Mobile receptor  mechanism is required for the action of the hormone
1)Epinephrine                 2)Aldosterone                 3)Insulin                            4)Growth hormone
45.          Assertion(A): Hypoparathyroidism leads to tetany
Reason(R ): Hypoparathyroidism increases calcium  content in blood
1) A is true but R is false                                        2)A&R are true R does not explain A
3) A & R are true R explains A                              4)A is false but R is true
46. Which of the following hormones are NOT antagonistic
      1. Insulin  &  glucagon                                      2. Calcitonin & PTH
      3. Gasrin & GIP                                                  4. Epinephrine & Nor-epinephirine
47. Hyposecretion of hypoglycemic harmone causes
      1. Hypoglycemia                                                2. Hyperglycemia
      3. Insulin shock                                                  4. Diabetes insipidus
48. Sexually and intellectually normal individual out of following
      1. Thyroid dwarf                                                2. Cretin                          
      3. Pituitary dwarf                                               4. Myxodema adult
49. Match
      A. Moon face, buffalo hump                           I. Hyper secretion of somatomammotropin
      B. Tetany                                                            II. Hyper thyroidism
      C. Acromegalay                                                III. Hyper secretion  of GH
      D. Protruded eyeballs                                      IV. Hypoparathyroidism
                                                                                    V. Hyper secretion of glucocorticoids
      1. V   IV   I   II                                                      2. II   III   I   IV                
      3. V  IV   III  II                                                     4. V  IV  II   III
50. Life saving harmones
      1. Androgens                                                       2. Catecholamines
      3. Glucocorticoids                                             4. Calorigenic harmones
51.    The immune response of the old people becomes weak due to
          1) Increased function of endocrine gland-thymus
          2) Degeneration of endocrine gland present below the breast bone
          3) Increased function of gland present over the kidney
            4) Degeneration of the gland present below the larynx
52.    Read the following and find the correct combination
          Hormone disorder                Hormone                                             Endocrine gland
          I. Acromegaly                        Hypo secretion of growth                Anterior lobe of pituitary
                                                                                                                           hormone in the adult       gland
          II. Cushing’s syndrome        Over production of                           Adrenal cortex
                                                                                                                           Glucocorticoids
          III. Tetany                              Hypoparathyroidism                        Thyroid gland
          IV. Myxedema                       Hyper secretion of thyroxine         Thyroid gland
          1) II – IV                           2) I – III                           3) I – III – IV                 4) III - IV
53.    Study the following statements regarding human female reproductive system
          A. Smooth muscle layer present in uterine myometrium shows strong contractions during parturition
          B. Glandular layer of uterus called endometrium shows cyclical changes during menstruation.
          C. Clitoris is analogous to penis of the male and supported by corpora cavernosa
          D. Greater vestibular glands are homologous to bulbo urethral glands
          The incorrect statements in the above
          1) A – B                            2) B – C                          3) C only                       4) A - D
54.    Which of the following is not involved in the differentiation of mature B and T lymphocytes into functional lymphocytes
          1) Bursa of fabricius                                               2) Lymph nodes
          3) Payer’s patches                                                   4) Spleen
55.    Circadian rhythms among animals are regulated by 
          1) Calcitonin                                                            2) Hormone produced by pineal body
          3) Melanocyte stimulating hormone                    4) Hormone produced by hypophysis
56.    Select correct combination
           hormone                    function                       nature
          I)Thyroxine                 erythropoisis              water soluble amine hormone
          II) Glucocorticoids    gluconeogenesis         steroid hormone
          III) ANF                       dialate blood vessels                                      peptide hormone
          1)I, II and III                2) II and III                  3) I and II                     4) I and III



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