Saturday, January 10, 2015



1.       Choose the correct statements
          A) Adventitious roots of sweet potato and fibrous roots in Asparagus store food material
          B) The stem of banyan tree have supporting roots coming out from the lower nodes of the stem
          C) Adventitious roots in Vanda are specialized to absorb moisture from atmosphere
          D) Haustorial roots of Viscum enter into xylem and phloem of host plant
          1) A, B are correct        2) B, C are correct        3) A, C are correct        4) A, B, C, D are correct
2.       The book/s written by Theophrastus  are
          I) Historia Plantarum                                       II) Causae  plantarum        
          III) Species plantarum                                      IV) Genera plantarum
          1) I only                        2) I and II                     3) I, II, III                     4)  I, II, III, IV
3.       Arrange the modifications of Nepenthes leaf in sequence base to apex
          1) Pitcher, tendril, phyllode                                2) Phyllode, tendril, pitcher
          3) Tendril, pitcher, phyllode                               4) Tendril, phyllode, pitcher
4.       Identify the incorrect statement in relation to Hypanthodium inflorescence
          1) Inflorescence with involucre                          2) Inflorescence with deep cup like peduncle
          3) Inflorescence with three types of flowers     
          4) Inflorescence with sessile unisexual, chlamydeous flowers
5.       A flower with half superior ovary found in
          I) Plum                         II) Rose                         III) Peach                     IV) Psidium
          1) I and II only             2) II and III only          3) I, II, III, IV              4) I, II, III only
6.       There are two plants 'A' and 'B'. Plant 'A' shows aerial stem modification that help in vegetative propagation. Plant 'B' shows cladophylls and underground fasciculated roots 'A' and 'B'. Plants respectively are
          1) Chrysanthemum and Asparagus                    2) Amorphophallus and Eichhornia
          3) Agave and Asparagus                                    4) Nerium and Agave
7.       Taxons                               Modified part                                         Function
          I. Bougainvillea                 Axillary bud                                           Protection
          II. Pisum                            Terminal leaflets                                    Climbing
          III. Nepenthes                    Lower part of petiole                            Assimilation
          IV. Pine apple                    Stem branch is  initially underground Vegetative propagation
                                                     later becomes aerial
          The correct combination is
          1) I, II                           2) III, IV                       3) II, III, IV                  4) I, II, III, IV
8.       In the genus A, Axillary buds help in vegetative reproduction and in genus B floral buds help in vegetative reproduction and in genus C Epiphyllous  buds help in vegetative reproduction and in genus D floral buds help in sexual reproduction A,B,C,D respectively are
          1) Agave, Dioscorea, Bryophyllum Datura        2) Aloe, Drosera Scilla  Hibiscus
          3) Drosera, Agave, Bryophyllum, Datura         4) Dioscorea, Agave, Bryophyllum  Hibiscus
9.       Read the given statements
          i) Gynoecium occupies the highest position while the other floral parts are situated below it
          ii) Ovary is superior
          iii) Examples are Brassica, Hibiscus, Brinjal, etc
          Which condition of flowers is being described by the above statements
          1) Hypogyny                 2) Perigyny                   3) Epigyny                    4) None of these
10.     24 calotropis plants each with 30 nodes, 50 Hibiscus plants each with 20 nodes, and 26 Nerium plants each with 10 nodes (at each node the number of leaves is 1 1/2 times greater to Calotropis or 3 times greater to Hibiscus) are collected . All these plants contain  leaves at every node. When leaves are counted what will be the total number of leaves of these three plants put together ?
          1) 2440                          2) 1440                          3) 1980                          4) 3220
11.     What is the total number of flowers found in the inflorescence of Ipomoea which showed 3 generations of branching (note : branches of peduncle also ended in flowers )?
          1) 9                                2) 14                              3) 15                              4) 30
12.     Which statement is true?
          1) Unisexual and pedicellate bisexual flowers are present in Sunflower
          2) In colocasia flowers are sessile unisexual and neuter arranged in basipetal succession
          3) In carrot the flowers appear to have arisen from same point on peduncle
          4) Terror of bengal plant was introduced in India because of its edible seeds  
13.     Identify the correct statements                        
          I) In pumpkin, stem tendrils are axillary bud modifications
II) In dioscorea, vegetative buds are modified into bulbils
          III) under ground stems in strawberry spread to new niches and form new plants when older  parts die
          IV) In casuarina, succulent needle like structures are phylloclades
          1) I and II only               2) II and III only         3) I, III and IV only      4) I, II and III       
14.     Flowers are described as hypogynous, perigynous and epigynous on the basis of
          I) Position of calyx and corolla in respect of the ovary
          II) Position of androecium in respect of the ovary
          III) Position of leaves in respect of the ovary
          IV) Position of carpels in respect of the ovary
          1) I, III                            2) II, IV                       3) III, IV                        4) I, II

15.     Identify the correct combination                     
          Common name              Family                         Morphology of chief edible part               
          I) Cucumber                  Cucurbitaceae            Mesocarp only
          II) Apple                        Rosaceae                     Fleshy thalamus
          III) Fig                            Moraceae                    Fleshy Peduncle
          IV) Jack fruit                Moraceae                    Succulent perianth
          1) I, II, III                       2) I, III, IV                  3) II, III, IV                   4) I, II, IV
16.    A : In cymose type of inflorescence, growth of the main axis shows limited growth
         R : In this type of inflorescence the main axis terminates into a flower
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
          3) A is true, but R is false                                   4) A is false, but R is true    
17.     The fruit  that develops  from multicarpallary apocarpous pistil  is
          1) Fleshy fruit               2) Dry dehiscent           3) Indehiscent               4) Aggregate fruit
18.     Identify the correct statement
          1) Sessile unisexual and neuter  flowers   are arranged accropetally in the inflorescence of Colocasia
          2) Unisexual and bisexual sessile flower develop accropetally on the head inflorescence of  Tridax.
          3) In Cassia all the flowers in the inflorescence are brought to the same height due to having  similar length of  pedicels                        
          4) Centripetal arrangement of sessile flower on the peduncle is seen in spike  of Achyranthes
19.     Perianth is absent in
          1) Mustard                    2) Euphorbia                 3) Lily                         4) Cassia
20.     In the involucre, united bracts are seen in the member of
          1) Umbelliferae             2) Poaceae                     3) Liliaceae                   4) Euphorbiaceae
01.     Alae overlap the
          1) Anterior margins of carina                             2) Posterior margins of vexillum
          3) Posterior margins of keel petals                     4) Anterior margins of vexillum
02.     Set of plants of Fabaceae which yield fibres, oils and vegetables respectively
          1) Arachis , Indigofera and Crotalaria                2) Crotalaria, Glycine and Dolichos
          3) Trigonella, Tephrosia and Arachis                  4) Phaseolus, Abrus and Derris
03.     A Fabaceae member with monadelphous stamens
          I)  Derris                          II) Crotalaria                III) Pisum                       IV) Arachis
          1) I & II                            2) II & IV                       3) II & III                         4) II alone correct
04.     Fabaceae numbers with self pollination are
          1) Pisum                          2) Lathyrus                   3) Butea                         4) 1 and 2

05.   Fabaceae flower is                                                                                                                    
        1) Pedicellate, pentamerous, perigynous and polypetalous
        2) Sessile, pentamerous, hypogynous and gamopetalous                                                         
        3) Pedicellate, trimerous, epigynous and Dichlamydeous                                                        
        4) Pedicellate, pentamerous, hypogynous and polypetalous
06.   Assertion (A):In Arachis, pod is indehiscent and geocarpic
        Reason (R) :In Arachis, flowers are produced underground 
        1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
        2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
        3) (A) is true but (R) is false                        4) (A) is false but (R) is true
07.     Flowers of Solanaceae show
          1)Polypetalous corolla, pentandrous, epipetalous free stamens and vertically arranged carpels
          2)Persistant calyx, epipetalous stamens, swollen axile placentation and obliquely arranged carpels
          3) Pentandrous, syngenesious stamens, unilocular and inferior ovary
          4) Diadelphous stamens, monocarpellary and  half inferior ovary            
08.   Fruit is berry in
          I) Asparagus                  II) Brinjal                    III) Tomato                   IV) Chilly
          1) I, II and III only       2) I, II, III, IV              3) II, III and IV only    4) III and IV only
09.   Study the following lists and identify the correct pair
        Scientific name                                                    Common name            Use
        A) Solanum nigrum                                            Makoi                           Medicinal
        B) Atropa belladona                                           Belladona                     Ornamental
        C) Withania somnifera                                       Aswagandha                Medicinal
        D) Solanum melongena                                              Potato                   Vegetable
        1) A & C                         2) B & C                       3) C & D                       4) A & D
10.   Assertion (A)         : In Fabaceae, corolla is papilionaceous
        Reason (R)            : In Fabaceae, calys  shows descendingly imbricate aestivation
        1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
        2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
        3) (A) is true but (R) is false                        4) (A) is false but (R) is true
11.   Structurally monocot embryo differs with Dicot embryo in having                                    
        1) Radicle                    2) Epiblast               3) Plumule               4) Two cotyledons
12.     Solanaceae members with unilocular and bilocular ovaries respectively are
          1) Solanum and Capsicum                                   2) Solanum, Tobacco
          3) Capsicum, Solanum                                         4) Solanum and Datura
13.     Brinjal, Potato, Kamanchi, Tomato, Night Queen, belong to how many genera?
          1) 1                                  2) 2                               3) 3                                 4) 4
14.     Bicollateral vascular bundles are present in the stems of
          I) Thorn apple               II) Spanish dagger     III) Fenugreek              IV) Petunia
          1) I,IV only                     2) I,II only                   3) II,IV only                  4) except III

15.     Assertion(A): Phylogenetic system of classification of plants was proposed in a book Genera   
           Reason(R):Post-Darwinian classifications are phylogenetic classifications.
          1)  A and R are true and R explains A                2) A and R are true but R does not explains A
          3) A is true but R is false                                     4) A is false but R is true
16.     Numerical taxonomy is different from artificial system of classifications in giving
          1) Importance to some characters only                2) Importance to evolutionary trends
          3) Importance to all characters                            4) Importance to serological tests
17.     Assertion (A)  :  In many Liliaceae members, the fruit is usually capsule but berry fruit is rarely found in asparagus
          Reason (R)      :  Liliaceae belongs to monocotyledonae
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
          3) A is true, but R is false                                    4) A is false, but R is true
18.     In bentham and hooker's classification the number of series is equal to the                   
          1) Sum of the cohorts of polypetalae and gamopetalae
          2) Sum of the cohorts placed under thalamiflorae, calyciflorae, Disciflorae, Inferae and           heteromerae
          3) Sum of the cohorts placed under Bicarpellatae, calyciflorae, disciflorae, Inferae and             thalamiflorae
          4) Sum of the cohorts placed under polypetalae, monochlamydae and monocotyledonae
19.     Which of the following is true ?                      
          I) Monocarpellary , unilocular,  marginal placentation-Fabaceae
          II) Bicarpellary unicocular basal placentation-Asteraceae
          III) Tricarpellary, unilocular , parietal placentation-Cucurbitaceae
          IV) Bicarpellary, bilocular parietal placentation with false septum-Brassicaceae
          1) I and II only               2) I, II and III only      3) Except IV                  4) I, II, III, IV       
20.     Assertion (A)  :  Cytotaxonomy uses the cytological characters like chromosome number and structure
          Reason (R)      :  Chemo taxonomy uses the phytochemical data to solve the problems of taxonomy
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
          3) A is true, but R is false                                    4) A is false, but R is true

1.       In five kingdom classification, how many kingdoms have cellular organization in their organisms
          1) 5                                  2) 4                               3) 3                                 4) Zero 
2.       Assertion (A)  :  Blue green algae are primitive oxygenic organisms
          Reason (R)      :  O2 is liberated during photosynthesis of Prokaryotic Blue green algae
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
        3) A is true, but R is false                                                                            4) A is false, but R is true
3.       Find true statement regarding auxospores
          I) They are Asexual spores                               II) They are Sexual spores 
          III) They are rejuvenatory spores                    IV) They are produced by Chrysophytes
          1) I, III, II                       2) I, II, IV                    3) I, III, IV                    4) II, III, IV
4.       Find the false statement from the following
          1) Kieselgur is a product of diatoms
          2) Main criteria for R. H. Whittaker classification are cell structure, Thallus organisation, modes of nutrition etc.
          3) Methanogens are present in gut of ruminant animals
          4) Dikaryon condition is found in phycomycetes fungi
5.       Match the following     
          List – I                                                                 List – II                        
          A) Cleistothecium                                              I) Flask shape              
          B) Perithecium                                                   II) Cup shape              
          C) Apothecium                                                   III) Globose shape       
          D) Plasmodium                                       V) Umbrella shape      
                                                         V) Amoeboid shape    
                   A       B       C       D                                   A       B      C       D     
          1)      III     I        IV     II                         2)       II       I       V       IV
          3)      III     I        II       V                         4)       III      I       V       II     
6.       Somatic cell of primary mycelium of Agaricus consists of 10chromosomes. How many total chromosomes are found in Basidiospores that are produced by two basidia
          1) 70                                2) 40                             3) 80                               4) 100

7.       Match the following                                          
          List - I                                                                List - II                          
          A) Cholera                                                         I) Salmonella                 
          B) Typhoid                                                        II) Vibrio                       
          C) Tetanus                                                         III) Clostridium            
          D) Citrus canker                                               IV) Xanthomonas        
                                                                                     V) Corynebacterium    
                   A       B       C       D                                   A       B      C       D     
          1)      II       I        IV     III                        2)       II       I       V       IV
          3)      II       I        III     IV                        4)       III      I       IV      V     
8.       Protozoans that have an infectious spore like stage in their life cycle 
          1) Sporozoans                                                      2) Ciliated protozoans  
          3) Amoeboid protozoans                                     4) Flagellated protozoans     
9.       Ascomycetes fungus (Drosophila of plant kingdom) used extensively in biochemical and genetic work is                                        
          1) Penicillium                  2) Claviceps                 3) Neurospora                4) Aspergillus        
10.     Match the following                              
          List – I                                                                 List – II                        
          Organism                                                            Cell wall made up of
          A) Archaebacteria                                             I) Cellulose                   
          B) Mycobacterium                                             II) Pseudomurein        
          C) Gonyaulax                                                     III) Mycolic acid          
      D) Diatoms                                              IV) Cellulose                
                                                                                      V) Silica                        
                   A       B       C       D                                   A       B      C       D     
          1)      II       III     V       I                           2)       II       III    I         IV
          3)      II       III     I        V                         4)       II       V     III      IV    
11.     Monerans in which flagella are absent in vegetative phase (or) reproductive phase        
          1) Nostoc                        2) Anabaena                 3) Spirilla                       4) 1 and 2  
12.     Assertion (A)  :  Dinoflagellates are called whirling whips
          Reason (R)      :  Flagella of dinoflagellates produce spinning movements
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
          3) A is true, but R is false                                    4) A is false, but R is true
13.     Author of systema naturae                              
          1) Aristotle                      2) Linnaeus                  3) R H Whittaker           4) Ernst Mayr        
14.     Identify the fungal member from the following in which asexual spores are generally not found
          1) Aspergillus                  2) Polyporus                 3) Alternaria                   4) Mucor    
15.     Identify the mismatch from the following
          1) The reserve food material in fungus-Glycogen & oil       2) Puccinia-Rust disease           
          3) Colletotrichum-Red rot of sugarcane                           4) Alternaria-Late blight of potato
16.     Identify the correct statement
          1) The name virus that means venom or poisonous fluid was given by T.O diener
          2) Viroids cause scrapie disease of sheep and mad cow disease in cows
          3) The cell membranes of fungi are composed of chitin and polysaccharides
          4) Many mycoplasmas are pathogenic in animals and plants
17.     Identify the incorrect statement
          1) Red tides in medeterranian sea is due to large number of Trichodesmeum erythrium
          2) Cyanobacteria are most primitive organisms showing oxygenic photosynthesis
          3) Mycoplasmas are anaerobic, pleomorphic and pathogenic
          4) Kieselghur is used in polishing, filtration of oil and syrups  
18.     Read the following lists
          List - I                                                                 List- II
          A. Diener                                                            I. Prion
          B. Mad cow disease                                           II. Pasteur
          C. Virus                                                              III. Viroid
          D. Lichens                                                          IV. Good pollution indicators
                                                                                      V. Grow in polluted areas
          The correct match is 
          1) A–I, B–II, C–III, D–V                                   2) A–I, B–III, C–II, D–V
          3) A–I, B–III, C–II, D–IV                                 4) A–III, B–I, C–II, D–IV 
19.     Read the folloiwng lists and identify the correct match
          List - I                             List - II
          A. Neurospora                                                   I. Parasitic fungus on mustard
          B. Albugo                       II. Red rot in Sugarcane
          C. Colletotrichum         III. Bracket fungus
           D. Polyporus                 IV. Used extensively in biochemical and genetic work
                                                 V. Fungus with several pores in mycelium
          1) A–IV, B–I, C–II, D–V                                   2) A–IV, B–II, C–I, D–V   
          3) A–I, B–II, C–IV, D–III                                 4) A–IV, B–I, C–II, D–III 
20.     Members of phycomycetes are found in
          i. Aquatic habitats                                              ii. On decaying wood          
          iii. Moist and damp places                                 iv. As obligate parasites on plants 
          Choose from the following options                 
          1) iii and iv only              2) i and iv only             3) ii and iii only              4) i, ii, iii, iv
TEST-4 (14-01-2015):PLANT KINGDOM
1.                                 List - I                                                     List - II
          A)     Embryophyte but not a tracheophyte             I) Dryopteris
          B)     Tracheophyte but not a spermatophyte          II) Dolichos
          C)     Spermatophyte but not archegoniate              III) Moss
          D)     Spermatophyte with archegonia                      IV) Cycas
          The correct match is                          
                   A       B      C        D                                                     A           B         C          D         
          1)      I         II     III       IV                                         2)       III         IV       II          I           
          3)      III      I       II        IV                                         4)       IV         III       I            II         
2.       Red rot of sugarcane is caused by                   
          1) Alternaria                    2) Colletotrichum         3) Trichoderma              4) Albugo  
3.       Algin is obtained from the members of          
          1) Red algae                    2) Green algae              3) Brown algae              4) Diatoms 
4.       Assertion (A): The endosperm in gymnosperms is haploid
          Reason (R)      :  Endosperm in gymnosperms is formed from  a haploid megaspore
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
          3) A is true, but R is false                                    4) A is false, but R is true   
5.       Gymnosperms bear seeds, but lack fruits because they lack
          1) Embryo                       2) Ovule                       3) Ovary                         4) Fertilization       
6.       Which of the following have now been excluded from the kingdom Plantae ?
          I) Prokaryotic Monera                                      II) Fungi                              
          III) Eukaryotic protista possessing cell walls  
          1) I, II only                     2) II, III only               3) I, III only                   4) I, II and III
7.       Assertion (A) : Lichens are pollution indicators
          Reason (R)      :  Lichens grow profusely in polluted areas
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
          3) A is true, but R is false                                    4) A is false, but R is true   
8.       List - I                                                                 List - II
          A) Kieselguhr                                                   I) Euglena                     
          B) Bioluminiscence                                           II) Diatoms                    
          C) Pellicle                                                           III) Gonyaulax             
          D) Red tides in Mediterranean sea                  IV) Noctiluca                
          The correct match is    
                   A       B       C       D                                   A       B      C       D     
          1)      III     I        IV     II                         2)       II       IV    I         III
          3)      II       III     I        IV                        4)       III      II     IV      I
9.       Cyanobacteria are       
          1) Eukaryotes                  2) Actinomycetes         3) Acellular organisms   4) Prokaryotes
10.     List - I                                                                           List - II
          A)  Pseudomurein                                                        I) Euglenoids      
          B) Mesokaryon                                                            II) Protozoans    
          C)  Desmids                                                                  III) Dinoflagellates    
          D)  Cytopharynx                                                          IV) Archaebacteria   
          E)  Malarial parasite                                     V) Chrysophytes
          The correct match is   
                   A       B       C       D      E                          A       B      C       D      E
          1)      III     I        IV     II      V                2)       II       V     I         III     IV
          3)      IV     III     V       I        II                4)       IV      I       III      V      II
11.     Monerans devoid of cell wall are                     
          1) Mycoplasmas              2) Actinomycetes         3) Archaebacteria           4) Eubacteria
12.     Assertion (A) : Mosses are of great ecological importance 
          Reason (R)      :  Mosses along with lichens are the first  organisms to colonise rocks
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
          3) A is true, but R is false                                    4) A is false, but R is true
13.     A plant shows thallus like body organization. It shows rhizoids and is haploid. It needs water to complete its life cycle because the male gametes are motile. Identify the group to which it belongs
          1) Pteridophyta           2) Gymnospermae    3) Angiospermae         4) Bryophyta
14.    Bryophytes, the amphibious cryptogams, occupy a distinct niche in the plant kingdom. They resemble the algae in having a predominant gametophytic phase and resemble the pteridophytes in many features like presence of archegonia, zooidogamous oogamy heteromorphic alternation of generations etc. yet they show an unique feature like                             
         1) Mitosis in zygote          2) Non-vascularised gametophytes
         3) jacketed gametangia   4) Dependence of sporophyte on the gametophyte
15.    Study the following lists
         List–I                                                                   List–II
         A) The chief producers in the oceans                     I) Slime moulds
         B) Saprophytic protists                                      II) Protozoans
         C) Primitive relatives of animals                       III) Diatoms
         D) Whirling whips                                             IV) Euglena
         E) Palmella stage                                                V) Mesokaryon
         The correct match is
            A         B         C         D         E                     A         B         C         D         E        
         1)            V         I           II         III        IV        2)         III        II         I           V         IV
         3)            III        I           IV        V         II         4)         III        I           II         V         IV
16.    Read the following statements (A to E) and answer the question which follows them
         A) In archaebacteria, the cell wall contains branched chain lipids
         B) Lichens are very good polluters
         C) Museums have collections of preserved plant and animal specimens for study and                reference
         D) Convolvulaceae, solanaceae are included in the order polemoniales mainly based on the      vegetative characters
         E) All living organisms-present, past and future are linked to one another by the sharing of     the common genetic material, but to varying degrees                                                                
      How many of the above statements are correct ?
         1) 4                                  2) 1                               3) 2                                 4) 3
17.    Identify the correct one among the following
         1) A unfertilised female cell especially one with chitinous walls --- Oospore
         2) A colonial aggregate of flagellated, mobile individual cells occurring in the life cycle of flagellated green algae --- palmella stage
         3) A  sexual spore produced by certain algae and fungi capable of moving by flagella --- Zoospore
         4) Non-motile, thin walled spore ---Aplanospore  
18.     Incorrect statement from the following
          1) Mosses have an elaborative mechanism for spore dispersal
          2) Pteridophytes are the 1st terrestrial plants to possess  vascular tissues
          3) Gymnosperms may be homosporous or heterosporous
          4) All angiosperms are non-archegoniatic, fruit bearing phanerogams  
19.     Study the folloiwng lists
          List - I                                                                 List - II
          A. Equisetum                                                     I. Gymnosperm
          B. Cedrus                                                           II. Pteridophyte
          C. Sphagnum                                                     III. Angiosperm
          D. Wolfia                                                            IV. Alga
                                                                                      V. Bryophyte
          The correct match is
          1) A–II, B–I, C–V, D–IV                                   2) A–II, B–I, C–V, D–III
          3) A–V, B–III, C–II, D–I                                   4) A–II, B–IV, C–I, D–V
20.     Assertion (A) : Distribution of Bryophytes and pteridophytes is limited on the surface of soil
          Reason (R) : Water is essential for fertilization in these plants 
          1) Both A and R are correct.  R is the correct explanation of A.
          2) Both A and R are correct.  R is not the correct explanation of A.       
          3) A is true, but R is false                                    4) A is false, but R is true   

      1)       3
      2)       2
      3)       2
      4)       1
      5)       4
      6)       3
      7)       4
      8)       4
      9)       1
  10)       4
  11)       3
  12)       3
  13)       4
  14)       4
  15)       3
  16)       1
  17)       4
  18)       1
  19)       2
  20)       4

      1)       3
      2)       2
      3)       2
      4)       4
      5)       1
      6)       3
      7)       2
      8)       2
      9)       1
  10)       3
  11)       2
  12)       3
  13)       3
  14)       1
  15)       4
  16)       3
  17)       4
  18)       2
  19)       4
  20)       4

      1)       1
      2)       1
      3)       3
      4)       4
      5)       3
      6)       3
      7)       3
      8)       1
      9)       3
  10)       2
  11)       4
  12)       1
  13)       2
  14)       2
  15)       4
  16)       4
  17)       1
  18)       4
  19)       4
  20)       4

      1)       3
      2)       2
      3)       3
      4)       1
      5)       3
      6)       4
      7)       3
      8)       2
      9)       4
  10)       3
  11)       1
  12)       1
  13)       4
  14)       4
  15)       4
  16)       3
  17)       4
  18)       3
  19)       2
  20)       1

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