Monday, October 14, 2013

TAXONOMY - FAMILIES COMPARATIVE STUDY

COMPARATIVE ACCOUNT OF FAMILIES 


ASPECT
FABACEAE

SOLANACEAE

LILIACEAE
CLASS
Dicotyledonae
Dicotyledonae
Monocotyledonae
SUB-CLASS
Polypetalae
Gamopetalae
-
SERIES
Calyciflorae
Bicarpellatae
Coronariae
ORDER
Rosales
Polemoniales
-
NO. OF GENERA
450
85
254
NO. OF SPECIES
8500
2200
4075
TYPE OF DISTRIBUTION
Cosmopolitan
Abundant in Tropical and sub tropical regions
Discontinuous
Abundant – Tropical regions
Cosmopolitan
Abundant – Tropical regions
HABITAT
Mesophytes
Ulex Xerophyte
Mesophytes
Xerophyte –Solanum surattense
MesophytesAllium, Lilium, Gloriosa, Smilax,  Colchicum
XerophytesAloe, Asparagus, Ruscus, Yucca
HABIT
Mostly annual  Herbs
Shrubs/Trees
Tendrillar climbers – Pisum, Lathyrus
Twiner - Dolichos
Mostly Herbs
Shrubs – Cestrum
Trees are rare
Mostly perennial Herbs
Shrubs/Trees – Aloe, Yucca, Dracaena
ROOT SYSTEM
Nodular taproot system
Tap root system
Adventitious root  system

ROOT MODIFICATIONS
Nodular roots
         ----------
Fasciculated roots -Asparagus
POSITION OF STEM
Aerial
Aerial
Underground-Solanum tuberosum
Underground-Allium,Lilium,
Scilla
Sub aerialAloe
Aerial – Smilax, Yucca, Dracaena
STEM MODIFICATIONS
Tendrillar climbers – Pisum, Lathyrus
Twiner - Dolichos
Stem tuberSolanum tuberosum
Tunicated bulbAllium cepa, Scilla,
Scaly bulb – Lilium
Intermediate bulb – Allium sativum
Rhizome – Gloriosa
Corm – Colchicum
Cladodes – Asparagus, Ruscus
Suckers – Aloe
HAIRS ON VEGETATIVE PARTS

               absent
Hairs or glabrous(smooth)
Absent
SALIENT ANATOMICAL CHARACTER
Conjoint , open V.B in stem
Bicollateral vascular bundles in stem
Conjoint ,closed vascular bundles in stem
Anamalous secondary  growth Yucca ,Dracaena
POSITION OF LEAVES
Cauline
Cauline
Radical Allium, Lilium
CaulineSmilax, Gloriosa
STIPULE
Stipulate
Exstipulate
Usually Exstipulate , rarely Stipulate (Smilax)
PETIOLE
Petiolate
Petiolate
Petiolate
 rarely Sessile-( Gloriosa)
SYMMETRY OF LEAVES
Dorsiventral
Dorsiventral
Isobilateral
PHYLLOTAXY
Alternate
Alternate
Appears to be opposite(or)
Whorled at floral regions
Alternate
Whorled - Trillium
MORPHOLOGY  OF LEAVES
Simple leaves – Crotalaria, Derris
Compound leaves
Unipinnate – Tephrosia
Trifoliate – Dolichos
Simple leaves
Simple leaves
VENATION
Reticulate
Reticulate
Parallel
Smilax – Reticulate
LEAF MODIFICATIONS
Pulvinous leaf bases
Foliaceous stipulesPisum, Lathyrus
Entire leaf into tendrilLathyrus
Terminal leaflets into tendrilsPisum
Leaflets into spinesUlex
-
Scales  leavesRuscus, Asparagus,Gloriosa, Colchicum
Spinous leavesAsparagus
Spinous leaf apexYucca Aloe
Tendrillar stipulesSmilax
Tendrillar leaf apexGloriosa
Succulent leavesYucca Aloe
Fleshy leaf basesAllium, Lilium
Reproductive leavesScilla
INFLORESCENCE
Simple raceme OR
Compound raceme
Axillary simple raceme – Dolichos
Terminal simple raceme – Crotalaria
Cymose
Terminal solitary cyme – Datura
Monochasial extra axillary Scorpioid – Solanum
Simple raceme – Asparagus
Compound raceme – Yucca, Aloe
Simple umbel – Smilax, Allium
Terminal Solitary cyme – Lilium
Axillary solitary cyme - Gloriosa
BRACT
Bracteate
Bracteate or
Ebraceteate
Bracteate
BRACTEOLE
Bracteolate OR Ebracteolate
Ebracteolate
Ebracteolate
PEDICEL
Pedicellate
Pedicellate
Pedicellate
TYPE OF FLOWER
Complete
Complete
Complete
Incomplete – Simlax, Ruscus
SEXUALITY OF FLOWER
Bisexual
Bisexual
Bisexual
Unisexual – Similax, Ruscus
MEROSITY
Pentamerous
Pentamerous
Trimerous
SYMMETRY OF FLOWER
Zygomorphic
Actinomorphic
Actinomorphic
TYPE OF FLOWER BASED ON POSITION OF GYNOECIUM
Perigynous
Hypogynous
Hypogynous
NO. OF SEPALS PER FLOWER
5
5
6 tepals
Polyphyllous or
Gamophyllous
Odd tepal of outer whorl-- Anterior,
Odd tepal of inner whorl—Posterior
Valvate aestivation
NATURE OF CALYX
Gamosepalous
Gamosepalous
AESTIVATION  SEEN IN CALYX
Valvate
Valvate
POSITION OF ODD SEPAL
Anterior
Posterior
UNION OF SEPALS
Only cohesion
Only cohesion
NO. OF PETALS PER FLOWER
5
5
NATURE OF COROLLA
Polypetalous
Gamopetalous
AESTIVATION IN COROLLA
Descendingly imbricate/vexillary
Valvate/Twisted
(Solanum) (Datura)
POSITION OF ODD PETAL
Posterior
Anterior
SPECIAL CHARACTER SEEN IN PERIANTH
Papilionaceous corolla
     -------------
Petaloid perianth


UNION OF PETALS
No Adhesion
No  Cohesion
Both Cohesion and Adhesion
Commonly
No- cohesion
Cohesion – Aloe,Allium
Commonly No –Adhesion
Adhesion – Asparagus,Allium,Lilium
NO. OF STAMENS PER FLOWER
10
5
6
NO. OF ANTHER LOBES PER FLOWER
20
10
12
NO. OF MCROSPORANGIA PER FLOWER
40
20
24
RATIO BETWEEN ANTHERS
ANTHERS LOBES AND MICROSPORANGIA
1 : 2 : 4
1 : 2 : 4
1 : 2 : 4
RATIO BETWEEN PERIANTH MEMBERS AND STAMENS
1 : 1
2 : 1
1 : 1
ANTHERS
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal dehiscence
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal(Datura) OR Porous (Solanum)  dehiscence
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal dehiscence
UNION OF STAMENS
Only cohesion (Diadelphous or Monadelphous)
Only Adhesion (Epipetalous)
Commonly no cohesion and no Adhesion
Adhesion – Asparagus,Allium,LIlium (Epiphyllous)
SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN ANDROECIUM
Open staminal tube staminal tube is opened towards posterior side
Position of single stamen - Posterior
Larger Anthers
Stamens are alternate to petals
Outer whorls of  stamens are opposite to outer whorl of tepals and inner whorl of stamens are opposite to inner whorl of tepals
NO. OF CARPELS IN GYNOECIUM
1
2
3
NO. OF LOCULES IN AN  OVARY
1
Usually-2(Solanum)
1 – Capsicum
4 – Datura
3

RATIO BETWEEN CARPELS AND LOCULES
1 : 1
1 : 1-Solanum
2 : 1 – Capsicum
1 : 2 - Datura
1 : 1
POSITION OF OVARY
Half-inferior
Superior – Crotalaria
Superior
Superior
NO OF NON- ESSENTIAL ORGANS PER FLOWER
 10
10
06
NO OF ESSENTIAL ORGANS PER FLOWER
11
7
09
NO OF FLORAL LEAVES PER FLOWER
21
17
15
NO OF FLORAL LEAVES SHOW COHESION
16 OR 17
12
3 OR 9
NO OF FLORAL LEAVES SHOW ADHESION
0
10
0  0R 12
NO OF FLORAL LEAVES SHOW BOTH COHESION AND ADHESION
0
5
0 OR 6
RATIO BETWEEN NON-ESSENTIAL AND ESSENTIAL ORGANS
10:11
10:7
2:3(6:9)
PLACENTATION
Marginal
Axile placentation  with swollen placenta
Axile
NO. OF STIGMATIC LOBES
1
1
3
RATIO BETWEEN CARPELS, LOCULES AND STIGMATIC LOBES
1 : 1 : 1
2 : 2 : 1
1 : 1 : 1

NO. OF NECTAR GLANDS PER FLOWER
1
0
3
SPECIAL CHARACTER SEEN IN  GYNOECIUM
Long and Curved style
Ovary is obliquely arranged at angle of
Septal nectaries
FLORAL FORMULAE
Br.Brl or Ebrl,%
 or *       
Brl,   - Arachis
Brl,  -Crotolaria
Brl.   Tephrosia
Br or Ebr, Ebrl*
Br. Ebrl
    or  (3+3)
 - Aloe
 - Asparagus
TYPE OF POLLINATION
Entamophily
Entamophily
Entamophily
CONTRIVANCES
PROMOTE CROSS POLLINATION
Protandry

Protandry
Protogyny – Datura , Solanum
Protandry-Allium
Protogyny – Colchicum
Herkogamy – Gloriosa
Dicliny –Smilax
              Ruscus
COMMONLY SELF POLLINATED PLANTS
Pisum, Lathyrus
Nicotiana
-
FRUIT
Legume / Pod
Indehiscent geocarpic pods – Arachis
Samara – Pterocarpus Dalbergia
Berry – Solanum Capsicum, Lycopersicon.
Septifragal capsule – Datura, Nicotiana
Loculicidal capsule – Llilium.
Septicidal capsule – Gloriosa
Berry – Asparagus
SPECIALITY SEEN IN POLLINATION
Piston mechanism
-
Yucca – Symbiotic pollination
SEED
Dicotyledonous
Non-Endospermic
Dicotyledonous
Endospermic
Embryos curved
Straight embryo -
Nicotiana
Monocotyledonous
Endoppermic
Embryos are straight or curved
ORNAMENTAL     PLANTS


                ----
Cestrum, Petunia
Asparagus, Yucca, Dracaena , Gloriosa, Tulip
FIBRE YIELDING PLANTS


Crotalaria
      --------------
Yucca, Dracaena
MEDICINAL PLANTS


Derris, Trigonella
Solanum nigram, Datura stramonium, Atropa, Wethania 
Aloe, Smilax, Gloriosa, Scilla,
OIL YIELDING PLANTS 


Arachis,Glycine
(edible oils)
Derris[medicinal]
----------------
---------------------
VEGETABLES



Dolichus,Glycine,
Trigonella,Pisum, Arachis
Solanum, Lycopersicon
  Asparagus, Allium cepa
ALKALOIDS


--------------
Nicotine-Nicotiana, Atropine- Atropa,
Capsine-Capsicum
            Colchicine
FODDER PLANTS

Crotalaria, Phaseolus
    -------------
     -------------
CONDIMENTS

       Trigonella  
Capsicum
     --------------
GREEN MANURE
Tephrosia, Sesbania
     -------------
      ----------------

SPICES
        ----------------
Capsicum
            Allium sativum
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