Thursday, January 20, 2011

Binomial Nomenclature

Binomial Nomenclature

In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. The system is called binominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binary nomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomial classification system. The essence of it is that each species name is in (modern scientific) Latin and has two parts, so that it is popularly known as the "Latin name" of the species, although this terminology is frowned upon by biologists and philologists, who prefer the phrase scientific name. Instead of using the seven-category system in naming an organism, Carl Linnaeus chose to use a two-word naming system. He adopted the binomial nomenclature scheme, using only the genus name and the specific name or epithet which together form the species name. For example, humans belong to genus Homo and their specific name is sapiens. Humans are then as a species classified by Linnaeus as Homo sapiens. Note that the first name, the genus, is capitalized, while the second is not.
Species is the lowest rank in this system for classifying organisms.


Contents
Ä History
Ä Value of binomial nomenclature
Ä Derivation of names
Ä Codes of nomenclature 
Ä Rules
Ä See also 
Ä References


History
The adoption of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778) who attempted to describe the entire known natural world and gave every species (mineral, plant, or animal) a two-part name. However, binomial nomenclature in various forms existed before Linnaeus, and was used by the Bauhins, who lived nearly two hundred years before Linnaeus.
Value of binomial nomenclature
The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the stability of names it generally favors:
Ä The same name can be used all over the world, in all languages, avoiding difficulties of translation.
Ä Although such stability as exists is far from absolute, the procedures associated with establishing binomial nomenclature tend to favor stability. For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the species descriptor is kept the same. Similarly if what were previously thought to be distinct species are demoted from species to a lower rank, former species names may be retained as infraspecific descriptors.
Despite the rules favoring stability and uniqueness, in practice a single species may have several scientific names in circulation, depending largely on taxonomic point of view.


Derivation of names
The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source. Often they are ordinary New Latin words, but they may also come from Ancient Greek, from a place, from a person (often a naturalist), a name from the local language, etc. In fact, taxonomists come up with specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including inside-jokes and puns.
However, names are always treated grammatically as if they were a Latin phrase.
There is a list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names.
Family names are often derived from a common genus within the family.
The genus name must be unique inside each kingdom. It is not normally a noun in its Latin grammar.
The specific descriptor is also a Latin word but it can be grammatically any of various forms including these:
Ä another noun nominative form in apposition with the genus; the words do not necessarily agree in gender. For example, the lion Panthera leo.
Ä a noun genitive form made up from a person's surname, as in the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, the shrub Magnolia hodgsonii, or the Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni. Here, the person named is not necessarily (if ever) the person who names the species; for example Anthushodgsoni was named by Charles Wallace Richmond, not by Hodgson.
Ä a noun genitive form made up from a place name, as with Latimeria chalumnae ("of Chalumna").
Ä the common noun genitive form (singular or plural) as in the bacterium Escherichia coli. This is common in parasites, as in Xenos vesparum where vesparum simply means "of the wasps".
Ä an ordinary Latin or New Latin adjective, as in the house sparrow Passer domesticus where domesticus (= "domestic") simply means "associated with the house" (or "... with houses").
Specific descriptors are commonly reused (as is shown by examples of hodgsonii above).


Codes of nomenclature
From the mid nineteenth century onwards it became ever more apparent that a body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names. In the course of time these became Nomenclature Codes governing the naming of animals (ICZN), plants (incl. Fungi, cyanobacteria) (ICBN), bacteria (ICNB) and viruses (ICTV). These Codes differ.
Ä For example, the ICBN, the plant Code does not allow tautonyms, whereas the ICZN, the animal Code does.
Ä The starting points, the time from which these Codes are in effect (retroactively), vary from group to group. In botany the starting point will often be in 1753 (the year Carolus Linnaeus first published Species Plantarum), in zoology in 1758. Bacteriology started anew, with a starting point on 1980-01-01.
A BioCode has been suggested to replace several codes, although implementation is not in sight. There also is debate concerning development of a PhyloCode to name clades of phylogenetic trees, rather than taxa. Proponents of the PhyloCode use the name "Linnaean Codes" for the joint existing Codes and "Linnaean taxonomy" for the scientific classification that uses these existing Codes.


Rules
Although the fine detail will differ, there are certain aspects which are universally adopted:
Ä As the words "binomial", "binominal" and "binary" all signify, the scientific name of each species is formed by the combination of two words, which are in a modern form of Latin:
1. the genus name (also called the generic name).
2. a second word identifying the species within that genus, for which the technical term varies, as follows:
Ä a general term for the word identifying the species is the specific descriptor
Ä in zoology, the word identifying the species is called the specific name
Ä in botany, the word identifying the species is called the specific epithet
Ä Species names are usually typeset in italics; for example, Homo sapiens. Generally the binomial should be printed in a typeface (font) different from that used in the normal text; for example, "Several more Homo sapiens were discovered." When handwritten, they should be underlined; for example, Homo sapiens. Each name should be underlined individually.
Ä The genus name is always written with an initial capital letter.
Ä In current usage, the specific name is never written with an initial capital.
For example, the entire tiger species is Panthera tigris
Ä Some older works, on the other hand, would sometimes write the specific name with an initial capital.
Ä There are several terms for this two-part species name; these include binomen (plural binomina), binomialbinomial name,
binominalbinominal name, and species name.
Ä All taxa at ranks above species have a name composed of one word only, a "uninominal name".
Ä The first level subdivisions within a species, termed subspecies, are each given a name with three parts: these are the two forming the species name, plus a third part (the subspecific name) which identifies the subspecies within the species. This is called trinomial nomenclature, and is written differently in zoology and botany. For example:
Ä Two of the subspecies of Olive-backed Pipit are Anthus hodgsoni berezowskii and Anthus hodgsoni hodgsoni
Ä The Bengal Tiger is Panthera tigris tigris and the Siberian Tiger Panthera tigris altaica
Ä The tree European Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp. nigra and the American Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis
Ä In scholarly texts, the main entry for the binomial is followed by the abbreviated (in botany) or full (in zoology) surname of the scientist who first published the classification. If the species was assigned in the description to a different genus from that to which it is assigned today, the abbreviation or name of the describer and the description date is set in parentheses.For example: Amaranthus retroflexus L. or Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) — the latter was originally described as member of the genus Fringilla, hence the parentheses.
Ä When used with a common name, the scientific name usually follows in parentheses.For example, "The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is decreasing in Europe."
Ä The scientific name should generally be written in full. The exception to this is when several species from the same genus are being listed or discussed in the same paper or report; in that case the genus is written in full when it is first used, but may then be abbreviated to an initial (and period) for successive species names; for example, in a list of members of the genus Canis, when not first in the list Canis lupus becomes C. lupus. In rare cases, this abbreviated form has spread to more general use; for example, the bacterium Escherichia coli is often referred to as just E. coli, and Tyrannosaurus rex is perhaps even better known simply as T. rex, these two both often appearing even where they are not part of any list of species of the same genus.
Ä The abbreviation "sp." is used when the actual specific name cannot or need not be specified. The abbreviation "spp." (plural) indicates "several species". These are not italicised (or underlined).For example: "Canis sp.", meaning "one species of the genus Canis".
Ä Easily confused with the foregoing usage is the abbreviation "ssp." (zoology) or "subsp." (botany) indicating an unspecified subspecies; "sspp." or "subspp." indicates "a number of subspecies".
Ä The abbreviation "cf." is used when the identification is not confirmed.
Ä For example Corvus cf. splendens indicates "a bird similar to the House Crow but not certainly identified as this species".
Ä Mycology uses the same system as in botany.
See also
Ä List of botanists by author abbreviation 
Ä Trinomial nomenclature 
Ä Hybrid name 
References
- Sneath, P. H. A.. "A short history of the Bacteriological Code".
- Heather Silyn-Roberts (2000). Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers, Presentation. pp. 198.
- "Recommendation 60F". International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Vienna Code. 2006. 60F.1.
- Charles F. Sturm, Timothy A. Pearce, Ángel Valdés (editors) (2006). The Mollusks: A Guide to Their Study, Collection, and Preservation. pp. 147.
- Frank A. Bisby, Plant Names in Botanical Databases, Plant Taxonomic Database Standards No. 3, Version 1.00, December 1994, Published for the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases for Plant Sciences (TDWG) by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh

English common names with their scientific names

Vine-leaved mapleAcer cissifolium
VioletViola
Violet willowSalix daphnoides
Virginia sweet spiresItea virginica
Virginia willowItea virginica
Virginian witch hazelHamamelis virginiana
Voss's laburnumLaburnum watereri 'Vossii'
WalnutJuglans
Warminster broomCytisus praecox
Warted spindle treeEuonymus verrucosus
Water birchBetula occidentalis
Water elderViburnum opulus
Water oakQuercus nigra
Water tupeloNyssa aquatica
Wax myrtleMyrica
Wayfaring treeViburnum lantana
Weawer's broomSpartium junceum
Weeping ashFraxinus excelsior 'Pendula'
Weeping birchBetula pendula
Weeping hornbeamCarpinus betulus 'Pendula'
Weeping mulberryMorus alba 'Pendula'
Weeping willowSalix babylonica
WeigelaWeigela
Welsh gorseUlex gallii
Western catalpaCatalpa speciosa
Western gorseUlex gallii
White alderClethra
White ashFraxinus americana
White beechCarpinus betulus
White mulberryMorus alba
White oakQuercus pubescens
White pinePinus strobus
White spanish broomCytisus multiflorus
White syringaPhiladelphus coronarius
White walnutJuglans cinerea
White woodLiriodendron tulipifera
White-leaved japanese magnoliaMagnolia hypoleuca
WhitebeamSorbus aria
WhiteoakQuercus alba
Wig treeCotinus coggygria
Wild cherryPrunus cerasus
Wild jasminPhiladelphus coronarius
Wild jasmineJasminum fruticans
Wild pepperDaphne mezereum
Wild rosemaryLedum palustre
Wild service treeSorbus torminalis
WillowSalix
Willow oakQuercus phellos
Willow-leaved magnoliaMagnolia salifolia
Windmill palmTrachycarpus
Wing nutPterocarya
Winter barkDrimys winteri
Winter currantRibes sanguineum
Winter daphneDaphne odora
Winter sweetChimonanthus praecox
Witch hazelHamamelis
WolfberryLycium
WormwoodArtemisia
Yellow bark oakQuercus velutina
Yellow bean treeCatalpa ovata
Yellow birchBetula alleghaniensis
Yellow buckeyeAesculus flava
Yellow catalpaCatalpa ovata
Yellow chestnut oakQuercus muehlenbergii
Yellow jasmineJasminum fruticans
Yellow poplarLiriodendron tulipifera
Yellow spanish broomSpartium junceum
Yellow-flowered broomCytisus nigricans
Yellow-hornXanthoceras
YellowwoodCladastris kentukea
Yoshino cherryPrunus yedoensis
Young's weeping birchBetula pendula 'Youngii'
Yulan, lily treeMagnolia denudata
ZelkovaZelkova

English common names with their scientific names

Tatarian honeysuckleLonicera tatarica
Tatarian mapleAcer tataricum
Tea plantCamellia sinensis
TetracentronTetracentron
Texan walnutJuglans microcarpa
Thornless honey locustGleditsia triacanthos 'Sunburst'
Thuringe hybrid ashSorbus thuringiaca
Tibetan cherryPrunus serrula
Tick cloverDesmodium
Tick-trefoilDesmodium elegans
ToonToona
Transcaucasian birchBetula medwediewii
Tree alfalfaMedicago arborea
Tree heathErica arborea
Tree ivyHedera helix 'Arborescens'
Tree medicMedicago arborea
Tree of heavenAilanthus altissima
Tree peonyPaeonia suffruticosa
Tree privetLigustrum lucidum
Tree purslaneAtriplex halimus
Trembling aspenPopulus tremula
Trident mapleAcer buergerianum
Trifoliate orangePoncirus trifoliata
True bayLaurus nobilis
True lavenderLavandula angustifolia
True myrtleMyrtus communis
True service treeSorbus domestica
Tulip treeLiriodendron
TupeloNyssa
Turkey oakQuercus cerris
TurkiCorylus maxima
Turkish filbertCorylus colurna
Turkish hazelCorylus colurna
Turner's oakQuercus turneri
TutsanHypericum androsaemum
Twisted heathErica cinerea
UmbellulariaUmbellularia
Umbrella treeMagnolia tripetala
Van volxem's mapleAcer velutinum vanvolxemii
Veitch's hybrid magnoliaMagnolia veitchii
Venetian sumachCotinus coggygria
Vilmorin's rowanSorbus vilmorinii
Vine mapleAcer circinatum

English common names with their scientific names

Southern nettle treeCeltis australis
Southern poplarPopulus balsamifera
SouthernwoodArtemisia abrotanum
Spanish boxBuxus balearica
Spanish broomSpartium junceum
Spanish chestnutCastanea sativa
Spanish oakQuercus hispanica
Spanish's broomSpartium
Speckled alderAlnus incana
Spice bushLindera
Spike broomCytisus nigricans
Spike lavenderLavandula angustifolia
Spike winter hazelCorylopsis spicata
Spindle treeEuonymus
Spiny furzeGenista germanica
SpireaSpiraea
Spur leafTetracentron sinense
Spurge laurelDaphne laureola
St. antony's nutStaphylea pinnata
St. daboec's heathDaboecia cantabrica
St. john's breadCeratonia
St. john's wortHypericum
Stag's horn sumachRhus typhina

StaghornRhus typhina
Star aniseIllicium anisatum
Star magnoliaMagnolia stellata
StewartiaStewartia
Stinking ashPtelea trifoliata
StoraxStyrax
StrawberryFragaria ananassa
Strawberry treeArbutus unedo
Striped mapleAcer pensylvanicum
Sugar mapleAcer saccharum
SugarberryCeltis
SumachRhus
SutherlandiaSutherlandia
Swamp bayMagnolia virginiana
Swamp blueberryVaccinium corymbosum
Swamp hickoryCarya cordiformis
Swamp oakQuercus palustris
Swamp tupeloNyssa aquatica
Swamp white oakQuercus bicolor
Swedish mountain ashSorbus intermedia
Swedish whitebeamSorbus intermedia
Sweet amberHypericum androsaemum
Sweet bayMagnolia virginiana
Sweet birchBetula lenta
Sweet buckeyeAesculus flava
Sweet chestnut treeCastanea sativa
Sweet fernComptonia peregrina
Sweet gumLiquidambar
Sweet pepper bushClethra alnifolia
Sweet shrubCalycanthus
Sweet spireItea
Sweet-berry honeysuckleLonicera caerulea
SycamoreAcer pseudoplatanus
SyringaSyringa vulgaris
Szechuan white birchBetula platyphylla var. szechuanica
TacamahacPopulus balsamifera
Tallow treeSapium
TamariskTamarix
Tan oakLithocarpus densiflorus
Tanbark oakLithocarpus densiflorus
Tartar mapleAcer tataricum
Tartar privetCornus alba
Tartarian cornelCoriaria myrtifolia
Tasmanian myrtleNothofagus cunnighamii

English common names with their scientific names

Queen's grape myrtleLagerstroemia indica
Quercitron oakQuercus velutina
QuickbeamSorbus aucuparia
QuinceCydonia
RagwortSenecio
Raisin treeHovenia
Raoul beechNothofagus procera
RauliNothofagus procera
Red ashFraxinus pennsylvanica
Red bearberryArctostaphylos uva-ursi
Red bilberryVaccinium vitis-idaea
Red buckeyeAesculus pavia
Red chokeberryAronia arbutifolia
Red horse chestnutAesculus carnea
Red mapleAcer rubrum
Red mulberryMorus rubra
Red oakQuercus rubra
Red snake-bark mapleAcer capillipes
Red whortleberryVaccinium uliginosum
Red willowSalix purpurea
Red-barked dogwoodCornus Alba
Red-berried elderSambucus racemosa
RedbudCercis
River birchBetula nigra
RobleNothofagus obliqua
Roble pellinNothofagus obliqua
RockroseCistus
Rocky mountain mapleAcer glabrum
RoseRosa
Rose acaciaRobinia hispida
Rose bayNerium oleander
Rose of sharonHibiscus syriacus
RosemaryRosmarinus
Rouen lilacSyringa chinensis
Rough-barked mapleAcer triflorum
Round-ear willowSalix aurita
RowanSorbus aucuparia
Rumanian oakQuercus macranthera
Russian oliveElaeagnus angustifolia
Sacred bambooNandina domestica
SageSalvia
Sage-brushArtemisia
Sage-leaved rock roseCistus salvifolius
Sallow thornHippophae rhamnoides
Salt treeHalimodendron halodendron
Saltbush, oracheAtriplex

Sand cherryPrunus pumila
Sargent's cjherryPrunus sargentii
Sargent's rowanSorbus sargentiana
SassafrasSassafras
Sauces magnoliaMagnolia soulangeana
Scarlet mapleAcer rubrum
Scarlet oakQuercus coccinea
Scarlet willowSalix alba 'Chermesina'
Scorpion sennaCoronilla emerus
Scotch broomCytisus scoparius
Scotch heathErica cinerea
Scotch heatherCalluna vulgaris
Scotch laburnumLaburnum alpinum
Scotch pinePinus sylvestris
Sea buckthornHippophae rhamnoides
SennaCassia
Service treeSorbus domestica
Service tree mountain ashSorbus domestica
Serviceberry, juneberryAmelanchier spicata
Sessile oakQuercus petraea
Shagbark hickoryCarya ovata
Sharp-leaved willowSalix acutifolia
Sheep laurelKalmia latifolia
Sheep-berryViburnum lentago
Shellbark hickoryCarya laciniosa
Shingle oakQuercus imbricaria
Shiny-leaved yellow-hornXanthoceras sorbifolium
ShrubberiesStaphylea pinnata
Shrubby altheaHibiscus syriacus
Shrubby birchBetula humilis
Shrubby cinquefoilPotentilla fruticosa
Shrubby horehoundBallota
Shrubby treefoilPtelea trifoliata
Shrubby trefoilJasminum fruticans
Shumard red oakQuercus shumardii
Siberian crabMalus baccata
Siberian salt treeHalimodendron halodendron
Siebold mapleAcer sieboldianum
Silk treeAlbizia julibrissin
Silk-tassel treeGarrya
Silky broomGenista pilosa
Silver bellHalesia monticola
Silver berryElaeagnus communata
Silver birchBetula pendula
Silver heatherCassinia vauvilliersii Albida
Silver limeTilia tomentosa
Silver lindenTilia tomentosa
Silver mapleAcer saccharinum
Silver poplarPopulus alba 'Nivea'
Silverleaf magnoliaMagnolia hypoleuca
SimmondsiaJojoba
Single-leaf pinyonPinus monophylla
Sinleaf yellow-hornXanthoceras sorbifolium
SloePrunus spinosa
Sloe bushPrunus spinosa
Small cranberryVaccinium oxycoccus
Small-flowered rock roseCistus parviflorus
Small-leaved limeTilia cordata
Smoke treeCotinus coggygria
Smooth japanese mapleAcer palmatum
Smooth sumacRhus glabra
Smooth-leaved elmUlmus minor
Snake-bark mapleAcer grosseri
Snow gumEucalyptus niphophila
Snow wreathNeviusia
SnowballViburnum
Snowbell treeStyrax japonicus
SnowberrySymphoricarpus
Snowdrop treeHalesia
Sorrel treeOxydendrum arboreum
Sour cherryPrunus cerasus
Sour treeOxydendrum arboreum
SourwoodOxydendrum
Southern ashFraxinus angustifolia
Southern catalpaCatalpa bignonioides
Southern magnoliaMagnolia grandiflora