Sunday, November 14, 2010

AIPMT-2011 BIOLOGY SYLLABUS

BIOLOGY (BOTANY & ZOOLOGY)

Unit : 1 Diversity in Living World

Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind
What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids (Botanical gardens, herbaria, museums, zoological parks); Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system); Major groups of each kingdom alongwith their salient features (Monera, including Archaebacteria and Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia); Viruses; Lichens
Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);
Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.
AIPMT - LINKS
Introduction
Eligibility
Examination Pattern
Syllabus
Tentative Schedule
Important Dates
List of Colleges
Application Process
Examination Centres
Contacts
Notification
Result
Forum
Unit : 2 Cell : The Unit of Life; Structure and Function

Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells. Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
Biomolecules – Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.
Unit : 3 Genetics and Evolution
Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;
Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood [^] groups in humans.
DNA –its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation; Gene expression and regulation; DNA fingerprinting.
Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.
Unit : 4 Structure and Function – Plants

Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants;
Anatomy and function of root, stem(including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;
Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients;
Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.
Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors .
Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.
Unit : 5 Structure and Function - Animals

Tissues; Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of earthworm, cockroach and frog.
Human Physiology – Digestive system - organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases. Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.
Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action.
Unit : 6 Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants

Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual Reproduction - Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and apomixis).
Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement; Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo- periodism; Vernalisation; Various types of movements.
Unit : 7 Reproduction and Development in Humans

Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation; Embryo development; Pregnancy and parturition; Birth control and contraception.
Unit : 8 Ecology and Environment

Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax.
Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web; Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
Ecological adaptations – Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.
Biodiversity – Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries)
Environmental Issues – Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea [^] of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot Spots).
Unit : 9 Biology and Human Welfare

Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and helminths, and their control.
Cancer; AIDS.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
Basic concepts of immunology.
Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.
Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and free- living [^] nitrogen-fixing microbes, mycorrhizae);
Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol agents for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;
Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with special reference to rust and smut of wheat, bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of potato, bean mosaic, and root - knot of vegetables.
Bioenergy – Hydrocarbon - rich plants as substitute of fossil fuels.
Unit : 10 Biotechnology and its Applications

Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.
Steps in recombinant DNA technology – restriction enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and other methods,
regeneration of recombinants.
Applications of R-DNA technology. In human health [^] –Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones,
Organ transplant, Gene therapy. In Industry – Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In Agriculture – GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pestresistance including Bt crops.

AIIMS-2011 ENTRANCE EXAM

AIIMS MBBS 2011 Entrance exam important dates :
Submission of Application form – from mid February 2011 – Mid March 2011
Tentative date of written exam – first week of June 2011
AIIMS MBBS 2011 Eligibility Criteria : Those who are interested in getting admission in AIIMS MBBS program has to be eligible to fill the form & give the exam. He / She must have passed 12th exam from a recognized board with at least 60% aggregate marks. Student should have Physics, Chemistry and Biology as compulsory subjects in 11th & 12th. Also, the age should be at least 17yrs. Those who are appearing in the final exams of the qualifying exam in 2011, can also apply for this exam.
AIIMS MBBS 2011 Exam Pattern : There will be written exam of 3 1/2 hours duration. There will be 200 multiple choice questions in the exam. There will be 60 questions each on Physics, Chemistry and Biology and 20 questions on General knowledge. For wrong answer, marks will be deducted.
AIIMS MBBS 2011 Application procedure : The application form can be obtained from the Bank of India branches as indicated. Also, one can get the form from AIIMS by requesting for the form along with the demand draft.

CARISSA CARANDAS

Ratio between leaves ,branches and thorns at each node is 1:1:2 (2:2:4)
each node produce two branches and each one ends with two thorns

ASPARAGUS

Asparagus, perennial garden vegetable (Asparagus officinalis) of the family Liliaceae (lily lily, common name for the Liliaceae, a plant family numbering several thousand species of as many as 300 genera, widely distributed over the earth and particularly abundant in warm temperate and tropical regions. Most species are perennial herbs characterized by bulbs (or other forms of enlarged underground stem) from which grow erect clusters of narrow, grasslike leaves or leafy stems. A few are woody and some are small trees. family), native to the E Mediterranean area and now naturalized over much of the world. As in the other species of this Old World genus of succulent plants, the stems are green and function as leaves, while the leaves themselves are reduced to small scales. The tender shoots of asparagus are cut and eaten in the spring. It grows wild in the salt marshes of Europe and Asia, where it has also been under cultivation from antiquity. In early times it was regarded as a panacea. Cato in his On Farming gave directions for growing asparagus similar to those in a modern manual of agriculture. The San Joaquin valley is the main asparagus-growing area of the United States; over half the crop is processed, i.e., canned or frozen. The feathery sprays of the mature garden asparagus are sometimes used by florists, but more popular for decorative purposes are other plants of the same genus-the asparagus fern (A. plumosus, not a true fern) and the florists' smilax (A. asparagoides), both climbing vines native to S Africa. The wild smilax, usually called greenbrier, belongs to the genus Smilax. Asparagus is classified in the division Magnoliophyta Magnoliophyta , division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms,class Liliopsida, order Liliales, family Liliaceae.
 Asparagus Officinalis Extract INCI Name Asparagus Officinalis Extract Asparagus Officinalis Root Extract CAS 84649-90-1 EINECS ELINCS No 283-471-7 aqueous extracts of asparagus photo picture image

 Stems - Up to 6 feet tall, herbaceous, erect, much branched, glabrous, from rhizomes. Branches thin and drooping.To 2m tall, herbaceous, erect, much branched, glabrous, from rhizomes, green. Branches thin and drooping.

 Leaves - Fernlike (actually branches functioning as leaves). They appear somewhat like pine needles. Alternate and reduced to scales on main stem, glabrous. Leaves of upper branches linear, to 2.5cm long, .5mm broad, in groups of 1-5 per node, glabrous, appearing as if in fascicles like pine needles.

 Flowers - Seldom noticed; whitish-green; stamens 6; anthers orange; appear from May - June.Perianth segments(tepals) whitish-green, to 6.5mm long, 1.5mm broad, with subscarious margins, rounded to obtuse at apex, glabrous. Stamens 6, adnate at base of perianth segments, included. Filaments to 3mm long, glabrous. Anthers orange, 1.6mm long. Style 1.1mm long, glabrous. Stigmas 3. Ovary superior, 1.8mm long, green, 3-locular. Berries to 1cm in diameter, red, glabrous, with 3-6 seeds.

 Inflorescence - Single or paired flowers from leaf axils. Pedicels jointed, to +1cm long, glabrous.

 Habitat: Pastures, fencerows, old cultivated fields, disturbed sites, open woods, roadsides, railroads. Escaped from cultivation. Native to Europe.

 Asparagus root consists of the rhizome of Asparagus officinalis L. [Fam. Liliaceae], as well as its preparations in effective dosage. The rhizome contains saponins.

 Asparagus Root is also known by the names Sparrowgrass, Tien Men Tong, and Shatavari. Asparagus is a perennial plant with short, horizontal rootstock having long, thick roots and sending up the young shoots that we eat as vegetables. The parts of this plant used medicinally are the root, shoots, and seeds. The word Asparagus is from the Persian "asparag", referring to tender shoots that can be consumed. Due to its phallic shape, it has long been regarded as an aphrodisiac. The Ayurvedic name, Shatavari, means "she who has one hundred husbands". Asparagus Root has been used to help one develop peace of mind, a loving nature, a good memory, and a calm spirit. Asparagus is a highly regarded herb worldwide. Chinese pharmacists save the best roots of this plant for their families and friends in the belief that it will increase feelings of compassion and love. In India, Asparagus is used to promote fertility, reduce menstrual cramping, and increase milk production in nursing mothers. In the Western world, it has been touted as an aphrodisiac. These customs and beliefs are not mere superstition - the root contains compounds called steroidal glycosides (asparagoside) that directly affect hormone production and may very well influence emotions. Asparagus is also high in folic acid, which is essential for production of new red blood cells. Other primary chemical constituents of Asparagus include essential oil, asparagine, arginine, tyrosine, flavonoids (kaempferol, quercitin, rutin), resin, and tannin. Asparagus acts to increase cellular activity in the kidneys and thus increases the rate of urine production. This herb also encourages evacuation of the bowels by increasing fecal bulk with undigested fiber. The roots considered diuretic, laxative, induce sweating, and are recommended for gout, dropsy, and rheumatism. Chinese studies report that the roots can also lower blood pressure. The powdered seeds have antibiotic properties and help to relieve nausea while calming the stomach.Studies report that green Asparagus aids protein conversion into amino acids. Because Asparagus helps to dissolve uric and oxalic acid, it benefits arthritic conditions and kidney stones. It is also a nourishing, blood-building tonic that enhances the health of both male and female reproductive organs. In India, the racemosa species is used to increase sperm count and nourish the ovum. Known topical applications have included use as a poultice and compress for muscle spasms and stiff joints. This herb also has culinary applications - the young shoots are eaten raw or cooked in salads and omelets; the root and shoots are added to soups; the seeds can be roasted and used as a coffee substitute. The common name Asparagus also includes the species Asparagus racemosus and Asparagus cochinchinensis, which are often used interchangeably with Asparagus officinalis.
 Asparagus Officinalis Extract INCI Name Asparagus Officinalis Extract Asparagus Officinalis Root Extract CAS 84649-90-1 EINECS ELINCS No 283-471-7 aqueous extracts of asparagus photo picture image

 Physical Characteristics:

 Perennial growing to 1.5m by 0.75m.

 It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant not is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

 The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid, very alkaline and saline soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Asthra