Wednesday, April 28, 2010

A READYMADE TIME TABLE FOR MEDICAL ASPIRANTS


--> Time Table to be followed by a student during coaching days (Mon,Tue,Wed,Thu, Fri & Sat):
Time of the day Activity Study Type Topics Covered Total Hours
05:00am – 06:00am Wake up and freshen up/prepare for study
 
06:00 am – 08:00am Classes Coaching hours (although try to study during college hours whenever you have time )   As per schedule 2.0 hours
8:00 – 8:30 Breakfast/newspaper
08:30 – 12:30 Classes Coaching hours (although try to study during college hours whenever you have time )   As per schedule 6.0 hours
12:30 – 2:00 Lunch, taking bath, maybe sleeping for some time
2:00 – 3:30 Study New topics(learning) E.g. Botany-Plant
kingdom upto Monera
7.30 hours
3:30 – 5:00 Study
New topics(learning
E.g. ZOO-
9.00HOURS
5.00 – 5.30 A short break , snacks time
5:30 – 8:00 Study New topics(learning) E.g. Phy- 11.30 hours
8:00 – 8:30 Break, Dinner
8:30 – 11:00 Study New topics(learning) E.g. Che- 14.00 hours










The aim while following the above timetable should be to study for at least 14 Hours.
Stick to the Plan:
Its easy to create a timetable but to stick to the plan is challenging. Make sure that you try to stick to the time table. Don’t postpone things for tomorrow as this will hamper you results.
Note : that this is just a sample timetable and it can be modified to suit your needs. If you want to make some changes then go for it. But the main concept of the timetable should not change

FUNARIA-PROBLEMS AND APPLICATIONS


1.       A dense patch on the wall contains 25 funaria plants. How many Antheridiophores and Archegoniophores are recognized in these 25 plants.
2.       Antheridium of funaria shows 50 Androcyte mother cells , find out the number of Androgonial    cells , Androcytes and antherozoids
3.       An Antheridial cluster shows 6 Antheridia each one with 20 Androcyte mother cells. How many Antherozoids are liberated from this cluster.
4.       A dense patch contains 20 funaria plants each Antheridial cluster contains 8 Antheriadia each one with 24 Androcytes. How many spermatozoids are liberated from each funaria plant 
5.       An Antheridial cluster contains 5 Antheridia and all are produce 200 spermatozoids. If all Antheridia produce equal no of spermatozoids. How many Androcyte mother cells are produced in each Antheridium.
6.       An Archegonial cluster contains 6 Archegonia what will be the number of following cells from this cluster.
            A)Minimum no of cells present in Archegonial cavities (neck canal+ venter canal )
            B) Total no of cover cells
            C) Minimum no of Neck canal cells
            D) Minimum no of cells degenerated in the archegonial cavities at maturity.
7.       An archegonial cluster contains 8 Archegonia. If all archegonia are involved in fertilization. How many meiotic divisions are takes place in zygotes
8.       A dense patch of funaria plants shows 20capsules. What will be the no of following from this patch.
            A) Total no of Spore sacs      
            B) Total no of peristomial teeth
            C) Total no of peristomial teeth having lignin thicknings
9.       A capsule of Funaria having 28 sporogenous cells. If these cells undergo divisions for four generations to produce spore mother cells, how many spores are liberated from this capsule.
10.       How many spindle apparatai and equatorial plates are required for the formation of 240 spores from sporogenous cells
            [ Sporogenous cells undergo divisions for two generations only]
11.       20 spores of funaria are germinates to produce protonema. Each spore is ruptured on both sides. Each protonema produce 20 buds, How many pyramidal apical cells are recognize in all  protonemas.
12.       If a leaf cell of Funaria shows 20 chromosomes. Each archegonium has minimum no of neck canal cells. what will be the no of chromosomes in the following structures
            a) Root cell
            b) Pyramidal apical cell
            c)Androcyte mother cell 
            d) Venter cavity in each archegonium
            e) All the cover cells in each archegonium
            f) Archegonial cavity 
            g) Chromosomes degenerated at maturity in each archegonium
            h) Chromosomes seen in the T.S of neck of archegonium
KEY

1.     25 and Many
2.     50, 100, 100
3.     240
4.     3840
5.     20
6.     A) 48        B) 24         C) 36       D) 42
7.     0
8.     A) 20        B) 640       C) 320
9.     1792
10.     225, 165
11.     800
12.     a) 20         b) 20         c) 20        d) 40
          e) 80         f) 160        g) 140      h) 140

RHIZOPUS-PROBLEMS AND APPLICATIONS


14.       A Rhizopus mycelium shows 20 fascicles of sporangiophores. If each fascicle contains minimum number of sporangiophores. What will be the no of sporangia.
15.       A Rhizopus mycelium shows 10 fascicles of sporangiophores each fascicle contains minimum number of sporangiophores. If each sporangium produce 20 spores each one with maximum no of nuclei, How many nuclei are involved in the formation of sporangiospores
16.       A Hypha of Rhizopus shows 20 Intervening empty spaces what will be the no of chlamydospores.
17.       A + Gametangium with 55 nuclei and – Gametangium with 40 nuclei are involved in Gametangial copulation. How many Haploid nuclei are find out in the Zygospore.  
 18.      A zygospore of Rhizopus produces 160 Germspores how many meiotic division are required for the formation of these germs spores.
19.       +Gametangium of Rhizopus contains 60 Nuclei and – Gametangium of Rhizopus contains 85 nuclei. If these two are involved in gametangial copulation. How many haploid nuclei are formed in Zygospore and how many – Germ spores are liberated .
20.       A Germ sporangium of Rhizopus produce 240 Germ spores each one shows 8 nuclei how many + nuclei are involved in Karyogamy takes place in Zygospore
21.       Five Rhizopus stolaniferous gametangia with allele ‘A’ are undergoing fusion with their mating    types and each one consists of 200nuclei , find out the maximum number of Germspores can be formed with Allele ‘A’ from this reproduction
22.       A + Gametangium with 50 nuclei and – Gametangium with 65 nuclei are involved in gametangial copulation. 50% of the diploide nuclei are failed to develop further. How many – germspores are liberated from Germ sporangium.
23.       Two gametangia of a Rhizopus belonging to Rhizopus stolanifer species, one having 55 ‘+’ Nuclei and another having 66 ‘–‘ Nuclei, fused to form Zygospore.  The number of ‘+’ and ‘–‘ meiospores produced respectively in germs sporangium developed from zygospore are:

KEY
14.     40
15.     4000
16.     19
17.     160
18.     40
19.     240, 120
20.     60
21.     2000
22.     50
23.     110,          110

VIRUSES-MEMORY CAPSULES


MEMORY CAPSULES  & MEMORY CHARTS
VIRUSES
Different types of nucleic acids present  in viruses
  ss DNA
ds DNA
 ss RNA
ds RNA
M13-bacteriophage

QX-174 bacteriophage
Many animal viruses.
T-even bacteriophages
Coli phages
Phyto phages--CMV,DMV
Many plant viruses TMV
TNV
Zoophages-polio virus, Influenza virus
Phyto phages-Wound tumour  virus,Maize rough dwarf virus,Rice dwarf virus
Zoo phages-Reo virus
Blue tongue virus
Bacteriophage-Q6

TMV

        Shape – Rod.                                                       Length – 300 nm
        Diameter – 18 or 19 nm                                      
        No. of capsomeres – 2,130                                  Symmetry – Helical
        Type of Nucleic acid – ss RNA                          Type of virus – Phytophage
        Diameter of central hole – 4nm/40A°                 No. of amino acids in a polypeptide chain – 158
        Length of m RNA involved in the synthesis of each capsomer of TMV – 1621.8A°
        No. of nucleotides present in the mRNA involved in the synthesis of each capsomer of TMV – 477
        No. of nucleotides in the RNA – 6500               Length of RNA – 22100 A°

Bacteriophage

Ø  Length of head – 65 nm                                
Ø  Breadth of head – 95 nm
Ø  Shape of head – Hexagonal                           
Ø  Shape of virus – Tad pole
Ø  Shape of tail – Rod                                        
Ø  Type of nucleic acid – ds DNA
Ø  Length of tail – 95 nm                                               
Ø  Diameter of tail core – 8 nm
Ø  No. of capsomeres in tail – 144                     
Ø  Capsomere rings in tail – 24
Ø  Shape of the tail plate – Hexagonal               
Ø  No. of capsomeres in each ring – 6
Ø  No. of appendages attached to the tail – 12  
Ø  Approximate length of bacteriophage – 160 nm
Ø  Approximate length of bacteriophage DNA – 1,60, 000 nm = 0.16 mm
Sequence of changes takes place during  lytic cycle
Collision between the virions and the bacterial cells- The phages get attached to the surface of the host at specific sites - Secretion of lysozyme - Formation of a hole in bacterial cell wall due to the action of lysozyme - Injection of phage DNA in to the host cell - Degradation of host DNA - Synthesis of coat proteins - Replication of phage DNA- Synthesis of different components of capsid - Assemblage of components and formation of complete virions - Host cell wall ruptures due to the action of lysozyme and the virisons are released.
Scientist Name
Discovery
Alexander fleming
Waksman
Anton van leeuwenhoek
Ehrenberg
Louis Pasteur and Robert koch
Earnest Haeckel

Whittaker
Christian Gram
Frederick Griffith
Lederberg and Tatum
Lederberg and Zinder
Heidi schulz
Edward Jenner
Louis Pasteur

Andre Lwoff

Iwanowski
Beijerinck
Stanley

Pierie and Bawden

Gierrer and Schramm

Frankel and Conrat
Franklin et al
Twort
Felix ‘d’ Herelle
Discovered pencillin from a fungus penicillium notatum
Isolated an antibiotic from a bacterium Streptomyces griseus
Discovered bacteria, coined the term “Animal cules”.
Coined the term “Bacteria”.
Discovered the pathogenic nature of Bacteria.
Proposed three kingdom classification and placed bacteria under protista.
Proposed five kingdom classification, placed bacteria under monera.
Developed gram staining technique.
Discovered bacterial transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Discovered bacterial conjugation in E.coli
Discovered transduction Salmonella typhimurium
Discovered an ever largest bacterium Thiomargarita namibiensis
Developed vaccine for small pox
Developed vaccine for rabbies, coined the term virus, proposed germ theory of disease and established Pasteur research institute
Said that A virus is a virus, former director of Pasteur research
institute
Discovered viruses.
Discribed viruses as “contagium vivum fluidum”.
Crystallized TMV.

Chemical analysis of viruses.
Discovered that the TMV is made up of nucleic acid and proteins.
Proved the nature of nucleic acid as infections agent and genetic material
Discovered that the genetic material in TMV is RNA
Described the structure of TMV
Discovered bacteria
Coined the term bacteriophage
VIRAL DISEASES
Disease
Symptom
Examples
Chlorosis

Mosaic


Vein clearing
Vein banding

Ring spots

Dwarfing/Stunting
Malformation
Breaking of flowers
Whitening or yellowing of entire leaf

Loss of chlorophyll in isolated patches


Loss of chlorophyll in the tissues close to veins
Loss of chlorophyll in the lamina except in areas of veins
Loss of chlorophyll in circular spots.

Reduced growth.
Abnormal growth
Loss of colour at certain parts and formation of dark colour at certain parts
Peach yellowing disease

Tobacco mosaic disease, Bean mosaic, Papaya mosaic , Cauliflower mosaic
Bhendi vein clearing
Citrus vein banding

Tomato spotted wilt, cherry ring spot, papaya ring spot
Rice stunting
Swollen shoot of cocoa
Tulip mosaic break

TRANSMISSION  OF  VIRUSES

Vector
Transmitted viruses
Vegetative parts
Mechanical transmission
Seeds
(Post fertilized form of ovule)
Pollen grains/Microspores
(First cell of male gametophyte)
Insects

Nematodes(Xiphenima,Longidorus)

Fungi(Olpidium brassicae)
(Heterotrophic thallophyte)
Phanerogamic parasites (Cuscuta)
(Complete stem parasite)
Potato virus, Sugar cane virus, Banana virus
Potato virus, TMV
Bean mosaic, Lettuce mosaic

Cherry ring spot virus

Rice tungro, potato leaf roll, papaya mosaic

Soil borne viral diseases

TNV, soil borne viral diseases.

Some viruses

COMPARATIVE ACCOUNT OF FAMILIES



ASPECT
MALVACEAE
FABACEAE

SOLANACEAE

LILIACEAE

CLASS
Dicotyledonae
Dicotyledonae
Dicotyledonae
Monocotyledonae
SUB-CLASS
Polypetalae
Polypetalae
Gamopetalae
-
SERIES
Thalamiflorae
Calyciflorae
Bicarpellatae
Coronariae
ORDER
Malvales
Rosales
Polemoniales
-
NO. OF GENERA
82
452
85
254
NO. OF SPECIES
1500
8500
2200
4075
TYPE OF DISTRIBUTION
Cosmopolitan
Absent in cold regions
Cosmopolitan
Abundant-Tropical regions
Discontinuous
Abundant – Tropical regions
Cosmopolitan
Abundant – Tropical regions
HABITAT
Mesophytes
Mesophytes
Ulex Xerophyte
Mesophytes
Solanum surattense – Xerophyte
MesophytesAllium, Lilium, Gloriosa, Smilax,  Colchicum
XerophytesAloe, Asparagus, Ruscus, Yucca
HABIT
Mostly Herbs
ShrubsGossypium Hibiscus
Trees - Thespesia
Mostly annual  Herbs
Shrubs/Trees
Tendrillar climbers – Pisum, Lathyrus
Twiner - Dolichos
Mostly Herbs
Shrubs – Cestrum
Trees are rare
Mostly perennial Herbs
Shrubs/Trees – Aloe, Yucca, Dracaena
ROOT SYSTEM
Taproot system
Nodular taproot system
Tap root system
Adventitious root  system
Fasciculated root -Asparagus
POSITION OF STEM
Aerial
Aerial
Aerial
Underground-Solanum tuberosum
Underground
Sub aerialAloe
Aerial – Smilax, Yucca, Dracaena
STEM MODIFICATIONS
                 -
Tendrillar climbers – Pisum, Lathyrus
Twiner - Dolichos
Stem tuberSolanum tuberosum
Tunicated bulbAllium cepa, Scilla,
Scaly bulb – Lilium
Intermediate bulb – Allium sativum
Rhizome – Gloriosa
Corm – Colchicum
Cladodes – Asparagus Ruscus
Bulbils – Lilium
Suckers – Aloe
HAIRS ON VEGETATIVE PARTS

Stellate hairs
-
Hairs or Prickles are present
Absent
SALIENT ANATOMICAL CHARACTER
Mucilage cavities
-
Bicollateral vascular bundles
Collateral closed vascular bundles
Anamalous secondary  growth – Yucca ,Dracaena
POSITION OF LEAVES
Cauline
Cauline
Cauline
Radical – Allium, Lilium
Cauline – Smilax, Gloriosa
STIPULE
Stipulate
Stipulate
Exstipulate
Exstipulate or Stipulate (Smilax)
PETIOLE
Petiolate
Petiolate
Petiolate
Petiolate or Sessile –                      Gloriosa
SYMMETRY OF LEAVES
Dorsiventral
Dorsiventral
Dorsiventral
Isobilateral
PHYLLOTAXY
Alternate
Alternate
Alternate
Appears to be opposite (or)
Whorled at floral regions
Alternate
Whorled - Trillium
MORPHOLOGY  OF LEAVES
Simple leaves
Palmately lobed – Gossypium
Multifoliate – Ceiba
Compound leaves
Simple leaves – Crotalaria
Unipinnate – Tephrosia
Trifoliate – Dolichos
Simple leaves
Simple leaves
VENATION
Reticulate
Reticulate
Reticulate
Parallel
Smilax – Reticulate
LEAF MODIFICATIONS
-
Pulvinous, Leaf bases
Foliaceous stipules – Pisum, Lathyrus
Entire leaf into tendril – Lathyrus
Terminal leaflets into tendrils – Pisum
Leaflets into spines – Ulex
-
Scales  leaves – Ruscus, Asparagus
Spinous leaves –Asparagus
Spinous leaf margin – Aloe
Spinous leaf apex – Yucca
Tendrillar stipules – Smilax
Tendrillar leaf apex – Gloriosa
Succulent leaves – Yucca Aloe
Fleshy leaf bases – Allium, Lilium
Reproductive leaves – Scilla
TYPE OF INFLORESCENCE
Solitory cyme
Axillary – Hibiscus
Terminal – Gossypium
Simple raceme OR Compound raceme
Simple raceme OR
Compound raceme
Axillary simple raceme – Dolichos
Terminal simple raceme – Crotalaria
Cymose
Terminal solitary cyme – Datura
Monochasial Scorpioid – Solanum
Simple raceme – Asparagus
Compound raceme – Yucca, Aloe
Simple umbel – Smilax, Allium
Terminal Solitary cyme – Lilium
Axillary solitary cyme - Gloriosa
BRACT
Ebraceteate
Bracteate
Bracteate or
Ebraceteate
Bracteate
BRACTEOLE
Bracteolate
(Epicalyx)
Epicalyx absent in Abutilon , Sida
Bracteolate OR Ebracteolate
Ebracteolate
Ebracteolate
PEDICEL
Pedicellate
Pedicellate
Pedicellate
Pedicellate
TYPE OF FLOWER
Complete
Complete
Complete
Complete
Incomplete – Simlax, Ruscus
SEXUALITY OF FLOWER
Bisexual
Bisexual
Bisexual
Bisexual
Unisexual – Similax, Ruscus
MEROSITY
Pentamerous
Pentamerous
Pentamerous
Trimerous
SYMMETRY OF FLOWER
Actinomorphic
Zygomorphic
Actinomorphic
Actinomorphic
TYPE OF FLOWER BASED ON POSITION OF GYNOECIUM
Hypogynous
Perigynous
Hypogynous
Hypogynous
NO. OF SEPALS PER FLOWER
5
5
5
6 tepals
Polyphyllous or
Gamophyllous
Odd tepal of outer whorl-- Anterior, Odd tepal of inner whorl—Posterior
Valvate aestivation
NATURE OF CALYX
Gamosepalous
Gamosepalous
Gamosepalous
AESTIVATION  SEEN IN CALYX
Valvate
Valvate
Valvate
POSITION OF ODD SEPAL
Posterior
Anterior
Posterior
NO. OF PETALS PER FLOWER
5
5
5
NATURE OF COROLLA
Polypetalous
Polypetalous
Gamopetalous
AESTIVATION FOUND IN COROLLA
Twisted
Descendingly imbricate
Valvate/Twisted
(Solanum) (Datura)
POSITION OF ODD PETAL
Anterior
Posterior
Anterior
SPECIAL CHARACTER SEEN IN COROLLA
At base petals are fused with staminal tube
Papilionaceous
     -------------
Petaloid perianth


UNION OF PETALS
Only Adhesion
No Adhesion
No  Cohesion
Both Cohesion and Adhesion
Commonly
No- cohesion
Cohesion – Aloe
Commonly No –Adhesion
Adhesion – Asparagus
NO. OF STAMENS PER FLOWER
Many
10
5
6
NO. OF ANTHER LOBES PER FLOWER
Many
(No. of stamens = No. of Anther lobes)
20
10
12
NO. OF MCROSPORANGIA PER FLOWER
Many
No. of stamens =  No. of  Microsporangia  2
40
20
24
RATIO BETWEEN ANTHERS
ANTHERS LOBES AND MICROSPORANGIA
1 : 1 : 2
1 : 2 : 4
1 : 2 : 4
1 : 2 : 4
RATIO BETWEEN PERIANTH MEMBERS AND STAMENS
10 : Many
1 : 1
2 : 1
1 : 1
ANTHERS
Monothecous
Extrorse, Excerted
Dorsifixed, Reniform with Transverse dehiscence
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal dehiscence
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal OR Porous (Solanum)  dehiscence
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal dehiscence
UNION OF STAMENS
Both Cohesion (Monadelphous ) and Adhesion (Epipetalous)
Only cohesion (Diadelphous or Monadelphous)
Only Adhesion (Epipetalous)
Commonly NO cohesion and No Adhesion
Adhesion – Asparagus (Epiphyllous)
SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN ANDROECIUM
Spinous, Polysiphonous pollengrains,
closed staminal tube
Open staminal tube staminal tube is opened towards posterior side
Position of single stamen - Posterior
Larger Anthers
Stamens are alternate to petals
Outer whorls of  stamens are opposite to outer whorl of tepals and inner whorl of stamens are opposite to inner whorl of tepals
NO. OF CARPELS PER GYNOECIUM
3 – Many
5 – Hibiscus
Many – Sida, Abutilon
1
2
3
NO. OF LOCULES IN AN  OVARY
3 – Many
1
2
1 – Capsicum
4 – Datura
3

RATIO BETWEEN CARPELS AND LOCULES
1 : 1
1 : 1
1 : 1
2 : 1 – Capsicum
1 : 2 - Datura
1 : 1
POSITION OF OVARY
Superior
Half-inferior
Superior – Crotalaria
Superior
Superior
PLACENTATION
Axile
Marginal
Axile with swollen placenta
Axile
NO. OF STIGMAS
Carpels = Stigmas
Carpels = Stigmas X 2
1
1
3
RATIO BETWEEN CARPELS, LOCULES AND STIGMAS
1 : 1 : 1 OR 1 : 1 : 2
1 : 1 : 1
2 : 2 : 1
1 : 1 : 1

NO. OF NECTAR GLANDS PER FLOWER
0
Hibiscus – Many
1
0
3
SPECIAL CHARACTER SEEN IN  GYNOECIUM
Style is enclosed by staminal tube
Curved stigma
Ovary is obliquely arranged at angle of 45
Septal nectaries





TYPE OF POLLINATION
Entamophily
Entamophily
Entamophily
Entamophily
CONTRIVANCES
PROMOTES CROSS POLLINATION
Protandry
Hibiscus – Herkogamy
Selfsterility – Abutilon
Protandry
Pollen propottency – Dolichos
Protandry
Protogyny – Solanum
Protandry
Protogyny – Colchicum
Herkogamy – Gloriosa
Dicliny –Smilax
              Ruscus
COMMONLY SELF POLLINATED PLANTS
-
Pisum, Lathyrus
Nicotiana
-
FRUIT
Loculicidal Capsule – Gossypium, Abelmoschus
Schizocarp – Sida Abutilon
Berry – Malvaviscus
Legume / Pod
Indehiscent pods – Arachis
Samara – Pterocarpus Dalbergia
Berry – Solanum
 Capsicum, Lycopersicon.
Septifragal capsule – Datura, Nicotiana
Loculicidal capsule – Llilium.
Septicidal capsule – Gloriosa
Berry – Asparagus
SPECIALITY SEEN IN POLLINATION
-
Piston mechanism
-
Yucca – Symbiotic pollination
SEED
Dicotyledonous
Endospermic or Non-endospermic



Dicotyledonous
Non-Endospermic
Dicotyledonous
Endospermic
Embryos curved
Straight embryo -
Nicotiana
Monocotyledonous
Endoppermic
Embryos are straight or curved
ORNAMENTAL     PLANTS


Hibiscus rosasinensis,
H.micranthus, Malvaviscus, Althea
Butea monosperma
Cestrum, Petunia
Asparagus,Yucca,Dracaena ,Gloriosa
FIBRE YIELDING PLANTS


Gossypium, H.cannabinus
Crotalaria
      --------------
Yucca,Dracaena
MEDICINAL PLANTS


Abutilon, Sida
Derris, Trigonella
S.surattense, S.nigram, Datura stramonium
Allium, Aloe, Smilax, Gloriosa,Scilla, Colchicum
OIL YIELDING PLANTS 


Gossypium
Arachis, Glycine,
Derris[medicinal]
----------------
---------------------
VEGATABLES



Abelmoschus,
H.cannabinus
Dolichus,Glycine,
Trigonella
Solanum,Lycopersicon,Capsicum
          ---------------
ALKALOIDS


---------------
--------------
Nicotine-Nicotiana, Atropine- Atropa,
Capsine-Capsicum
          --------------
FODDER PLANTS

       ------------
 Arachis, Crotalaria, Phaseolus
    -------------
     -------------
CONDIMENTS

        -------------
       Trigonella  
Capsicum
     --------------
GREEN MANURE
   -----------

Tephrosia, Sesbania
     -------------
      ----------------


Asthra