Wednesday, April 28, 2010

COMPARATIVE ACCOUNT OF FAMILIES



ASPECT
MALVACEAE
FABACEAE

SOLANACEAE

LILIACEAE

CLASS
Dicotyledonae
Dicotyledonae
Dicotyledonae
Monocotyledonae
SUB-CLASS
Polypetalae
Polypetalae
Gamopetalae
-
SERIES
Thalamiflorae
Calyciflorae
Bicarpellatae
Coronariae
ORDER
Malvales
Rosales
Polemoniales
-
NO. OF GENERA
82
452
85
254
NO. OF SPECIES
1500
8500
2200
4075
TYPE OF DISTRIBUTION
Cosmopolitan
Absent in cold regions
Cosmopolitan
Abundant-Tropical regions
Discontinuous
Abundant – Tropical regions
Cosmopolitan
Abundant – Tropical regions
HABITAT
Mesophytes
Mesophytes
Ulex Xerophyte
Mesophytes
Solanum surattense – Xerophyte
MesophytesAllium, Lilium, Gloriosa, Smilax,  Colchicum
XerophytesAloe, Asparagus, Ruscus, Yucca
HABIT
Mostly Herbs
ShrubsGossypium Hibiscus
Trees - Thespesia
Mostly annual  Herbs
Shrubs/Trees
Tendrillar climbers – Pisum, Lathyrus
Twiner - Dolichos
Mostly Herbs
Shrubs – Cestrum
Trees are rare
Mostly perennial Herbs
Shrubs/Trees – Aloe, Yucca, Dracaena
ROOT SYSTEM
Taproot system
Nodular taproot system
Tap root system
Adventitious root  system
Fasciculated root -Asparagus
POSITION OF STEM
Aerial
Aerial
Aerial
Underground-Solanum tuberosum
Underground
Sub aerialAloe
Aerial – Smilax, Yucca, Dracaena
STEM MODIFICATIONS
                 -
Tendrillar climbers – Pisum, Lathyrus
Twiner - Dolichos
Stem tuberSolanum tuberosum
Tunicated bulbAllium cepa, Scilla,
Scaly bulb – Lilium
Intermediate bulb – Allium sativum
Rhizome – Gloriosa
Corm – Colchicum
Cladodes – Asparagus Ruscus
Bulbils – Lilium
Suckers – Aloe
HAIRS ON VEGETATIVE PARTS

Stellate hairs
-
Hairs or Prickles are present
Absent
SALIENT ANATOMICAL CHARACTER
Mucilage cavities
-
Bicollateral vascular bundles
Collateral closed vascular bundles
Anamalous secondary  growth – Yucca ,Dracaena
POSITION OF LEAVES
Cauline
Cauline
Cauline
Radical – Allium, Lilium
Cauline – Smilax, Gloriosa
STIPULE
Stipulate
Stipulate
Exstipulate
Exstipulate or Stipulate (Smilax)
PETIOLE
Petiolate
Petiolate
Petiolate
Petiolate or Sessile –                      Gloriosa
SYMMETRY OF LEAVES
Dorsiventral
Dorsiventral
Dorsiventral
Isobilateral
PHYLLOTAXY
Alternate
Alternate
Alternate
Appears to be opposite (or)
Whorled at floral regions
Alternate
Whorled - Trillium
MORPHOLOGY  OF LEAVES
Simple leaves
Palmately lobed – Gossypium
Multifoliate – Ceiba
Compound leaves
Simple leaves – Crotalaria
Unipinnate – Tephrosia
Trifoliate – Dolichos
Simple leaves
Simple leaves
VENATION
Reticulate
Reticulate
Reticulate
Parallel
Smilax – Reticulate
LEAF MODIFICATIONS
-
Pulvinous, Leaf bases
Foliaceous stipules – Pisum, Lathyrus
Entire leaf into tendril – Lathyrus
Terminal leaflets into tendrils – Pisum
Leaflets into spines – Ulex
-
Scales  leaves – Ruscus, Asparagus
Spinous leaves –Asparagus
Spinous leaf margin – Aloe
Spinous leaf apex – Yucca
Tendrillar stipules – Smilax
Tendrillar leaf apex – Gloriosa
Succulent leaves – Yucca Aloe
Fleshy leaf bases – Allium, Lilium
Reproductive leaves – Scilla
TYPE OF INFLORESCENCE
Solitory cyme
Axillary – Hibiscus
Terminal – Gossypium
Simple raceme OR Compound raceme
Simple raceme OR
Compound raceme
Axillary simple raceme – Dolichos
Terminal simple raceme – Crotalaria
Cymose
Terminal solitary cyme – Datura
Monochasial Scorpioid – Solanum
Simple raceme – Asparagus
Compound raceme – Yucca, Aloe
Simple umbel – Smilax, Allium
Terminal Solitary cyme – Lilium
Axillary solitary cyme - Gloriosa
BRACT
Ebraceteate
Bracteate
Bracteate or
Ebraceteate
Bracteate
BRACTEOLE
Bracteolate
(Epicalyx)
Epicalyx absent in Abutilon , Sida
Bracteolate OR Ebracteolate
Ebracteolate
Ebracteolate
PEDICEL
Pedicellate
Pedicellate
Pedicellate
Pedicellate
TYPE OF FLOWER
Complete
Complete
Complete
Complete
Incomplete – Simlax, Ruscus
SEXUALITY OF FLOWER
Bisexual
Bisexual
Bisexual
Bisexual
Unisexual – Similax, Ruscus
MEROSITY
Pentamerous
Pentamerous
Pentamerous
Trimerous
SYMMETRY OF FLOWER
Actinomorphic
Zygomorphic
Actinomorphic
Actinomorphic
TYPE OF FLOWER BASED ON POSITION OF GYNOECIUM
Hypogynous
Perigynous
Hypogynous
Hypogynous
NO. OF SEPALS PER FLOWER
5
5
5
6 tepals
Polyphyllous or
Gamophyllous
Odd tepal of outer whorl-- Anterior, Odd tepal of inner whorl—Posterior
Valvate aestivation
NATURE OF CALYX
Gamosepalous
Gamosepalous
Gamosepalous
AESTIVATION  SEEN IN CALYX
Valvate
Valvate
Valvate
POSITION OF ODD SEPAL
Posterior
Anterior
Posterior
NO. OF PETALS PER FLOWER
5
5
5
NATURE OF COROLLA
Polypetalous
Polypetalous
Gamopetalous
AESTIVATION FOUND IN COROLLA
Twisted
Descendingly imbricate
Valvate/Twisted
(Solanum) (Datura)
POSITION OF ODD PETAL
Anterior
Posterior
Anterior
SPECIAL CHARACTER SEEN IN COROLLA
At base petals are fused with staminal tube
Papilionaceous
     -------------
Petaloid perianth


UNION OF PETALS
Only Adhesion
No Adhesion
No  Cohesion
Both Cohesion and Adhesion
Commonly
No- cohesion
Cohesion – Aloe
Commonly No –Adhesion
Adhesion – Asparagus
NO. OF STAMENS PER FLOWER
Many
10
5
6
NO. OF ANTHER LOBES PER FLOWER
Many
(No. of stamens = No. of Anther lobes)
20
10
12
NO. OF MCROSPORANGIA PER FLOWER
Many
No. of stamens =  No. of  Microsporangia  2
40
20
24
RATIO BETWEEN ANTHERS
ANTHERS LOBES AND MICROSPORANGIA
1 : 1 : 2
1 : 2 : 4
1 : 2 : 4
1 : 2 : 4
RATIO BETWEEN PERIANTH MEMBERS AND STAMENS
10 : Many
1 : 1
2 : 1
1 : 1
ANTHERS
Monothecous
Extrorse, Excerted
Dorsifixed, Reniform with Transverse dehiscence
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal dehiscence
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal OR Porous (Solanum)  dehiscence
Dithecous, Introrse
Inserted, Basifixed with longitudinal dehiscence
UNION OF STAMENS
Both Cohesion (Monadelphous ) and Adhesion (Epipetalous)
Only cohesion (Diadelphous or Monadelphous)
Only Adhesion (Epipetalous)
Commonly NO cohesion and No Adhesion
Adhesion – Asparagus (Epiphyllous)
SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN ANDROECIUM
Spinous, Polysiphonous pollengrains,
closed staminal tube
Open staminal tube staminal tube is opened towards posterior side
Position of single stamen - Posterior
Larger Anthers
Stamens are alternate to petals
Outer whorls of  stamens are opposite to outer whorl of tepals and inner whorl of stamens are opposite to inner whorl of tepals
NO. OF CARPELS PER GYNOECIUM
3 – Many
5 – Hibiscus
Many – Sida, Abutilon
1
2
3
NO. OF LOCULES IN AN  OVARY
3 – Many
1
2
1 – Capsicum
4 – Datura
3

RATIO BETWEEN CARPELS AND LOCULES
1 : 1
1 : 1
1 : 1
2 : 1 – Capsicum
1 : 2 - Datura
1 : 1
POSITION OF OVARY
Superior
Half-inferior
Superior – Crotalaria
Superior
Superior
PLACENTATION
Axile
Marginal
Axile with swollen placenta
Axile
NO. OF STIGMAS
Carpels = Stigmas
Carpels = Stigmas X 2
1
1
3
RATIO BETWEEN CARPELS, LOCULES AND STIGMAS
1 : 1 : 1 OR 1 : 1 : 2
1 : 1 : 1
2 : 2 : 1
1 : 1 : 1

NO. OF NECTAR GLANDS PER FLOWER
0
Hibiscus – Many
1
0
3
SPECIAL CHARACTER SEEN IN  GYNOECIUM
Style is enclosed by staminal tube
Curved stigma
Ovary is obliquely arranged at angle of 45
Septal nectaries





TYPE OF POLLINATION
Entamophily
Entamophily
Entamophily
Entamophily
CONTRIVANCES
PROMOTES CROSS POLLINATION
Protandry
Hibiscus – Herkogamy
Selfsterility – Abutilon
Protandry
Pollen propottency – Dolichos
Protandry
Protogyny – Solanum
Protandry
Protogyny – Colchicum
Herkogamy – Gloriosa
Dicliny –Smilax
              Ruscus
COMMONLY SELF POLLINATED PLANTS
-
Pisum, Lathyrus
Nicotiana
-
FRUIT
Loculicidal Capsule – Gossypium, Abelmoschus
Schizocarp – Sida Abutilon
Berry – Malvaviscus
Legume / Pod
Indehiscent pods – Arachis
Samara – Pterocarpus Dalbergia
Berry – Solanum
 Capsicum, Lycopersicon.
Septifragal capsule – Datura, Nicotiana
Loculicidal capsule – Llilium.
Septicidal capsule – Gloriosa
Berry – Asparagus
SPECIALITY SEEN IN POLLINATION
-
Piston mechanism
-
Yucca – Symbiotic pollination
SEED
Dicotyledonous
Endospermic or Non-endospermic



Dicotyledonous
Non-Endospermic
Dicotyledonous
Endospermic
Embryos curved
Straight embryo -
Nicotiana
Monocotyledonous
Endoppermic
Embryos are straight or curved
ORNAMENTAL     PLANTS


Hibiscus rosasinensis,
H.micranthus, Malvaviscus, Althea
Butea monosperma
Cestrum, Petunia
Asparagus,Yucca,Dracaena ,Gloriosa
FIBRE YIELDING PLANTS


Gossypium, H.cannabinus
Crotalaria
      --------------
Yucca,Dracaena
MEDICINAL PLANTS


Abutilon, Sida
Derris, Trigonella
S.surattense, S.nigram, Datura stramonium
Allium, Aloe, Smilax, Gloriosa,Scilla, Colchicum
OIL YIELDING PLANTS 


Gossypium
Arachis, Glycine,
Derris[medicinal]
----------------
---------------------
VEGATABLES



Abelmoschus,
H.cannabinus
Dolichus,Glycine,
Trigonella
Solanum,Lycopersicon,Capsicum
          ---------------
ALKALOIDS


---------------
--------------
Nicotine-Nicotiana, Atropine- Atropa,
Capsine-Capsicum
          --------------
FODDER PLANTS

       ------------
 Arachis, Crotalaria, Phaseolus
    -------------
     -------------
CONDIMENTS

        -------------
       Trigonella  
Capsicum
     --------------
GREEN MANURE
   -----------

Tephrosia, Sesbania
     -------------
      ----------------


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